You followed the instructions and directions in the Expository Guide, the Common Writing Style Problems Guide, and the Endnotes Guide.
a minimum length of ten double-spaced pages of text, not counting the endnotes and the optional cover page?
A cafeteria plan, often known as cafeteria benefits, is a benefit provided by a business to its employees that allows them to obtain certain advantages before taxes. In a cafeteria benefits plan supplied by an employer, a participant must choose at least one taxable and one qualified benefit. A taxable benefit is a monetary or monetary advantage that is taken into account when calculating income. A qualifying benefit, such as payments for dental operations, is excluded from the participant’s gross income and is not subject to the rules of constructive receipt. The study discusses the value of benefits programs on a pre-taxed establishment based on what employer has a plan and rules that specifies all allowable benefits.
All rewards must be specified in writing, as well as regulations for each election made by the participant. A benefit in which monies allocated (pre-tax) for such activities is known as an election. The written plan is controlled by Section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code of the United Provides, which states that, “Except as provided in subsection (b), no amount shall be included in the gross income of a participant in a cafeteria plan solely because, under the plan, the participant may choose among the benefits of the plan”[endnoteRef:1]. According to the legislation, employees who engage in such programs can set aside money from their paychecks that isn’t taxable income as long as it meets the cafeteria plan’s terms. [1: 26 U.S. Code § 125 – Cafeteria Plans.” LII / Legal Information Institute, 2013. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/125.
The U.S. Code 125 is lengthy, however there are exceptions that imply that monetary values preserved for personal “health-related” difficulties are typically permissible. Health savings accounts, adoption help, accident or injury coverage, and health benefits are all examples of cafeteria plans[endnoteRef:2]. Participants in the plan often put a percentage of their wage into the cafeteria plan, which serves as a future security or “rainy day fund” for personal use. Most families, as well as singles and co-habitants, are able to appropriately save untaxed money for such treatments because of the employee cafeteria benefits. The funds set aside are tax-free and kept in a savings account for just such emergencies. [2: Poór J, Kovács IÉ, Mázásné HD, Mack Á, Fehér J. “Flexibility benefits-Cafeteria Plan. How the characteristics of the firms affect the system Cafeteria Plan in Hungary”. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research (JEECAR) 5, no. 1 (2018): 20-20
A participant in the cafeteria plan can have benefits as an addition to their own for their spouses and or dependents, allowing them to receive coverage as well. Former workers may be eligible at a firm’s discretion, although this is unusual unless there is a demonstrable hardship (to that applicant) for which the firm “should” give[endnoteRef:3]. A cafeteria plan works by the firm paying to the pre-tax foundation for the participant’s benefits based on the participant’s wage contribution. The concept is that a participant’s contributions, which are dependent on their pay, are not given directly to them. Although the wage is paid, the money goes through a middle man before it reaches the participant. As a result, the monetary value of such salary is exempt from Federal Insurance Contributions Act (FICA) and The Federal Unemployment Tax Act (FUTA). [3: Ali, BJ, & Anwar, G.(2021). “An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction”. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management 5, no. 2 (2021): 21-30.]
Cafeteria benefits plans are divided into two categories: public and private. Employees of the state or county make up the public sector. The private sector, on the other hand, comprises independent businesses. In terms of such benefits, both are drastically different. However, they are comparable in the sense that the goal of assisting their staff is present. Most people would see a favorable benefit package from the public sector in some instances. Some organizations, such as Google and Facebook, however, provide enticing packages because of their generosity and capacity to do so[endnoteRef:4]. Depending on what one is looking for, either option might be appropriate if the private sector employer participates in such benefits. [4: Franks L. “Cafeteria Plan Compliance: The Choices for Employees Can Be Many, but the Recipes for Employers Are Exact”. Journal of Accountancy 229, no. 3 (2020): 52.
When the participant accepts, their payments are deposited into a flexible spending account, commonly known as a cafeteria plan. The participant’s pay is used to pay this flexible spending agreement. Employees may be reimbursed for expenditures incurred because of certain eligible perks at some firms. The account is the same for people with dependents, but the money is flexible in terms of how the member utilizes it. Domestic partners are currently ineligible to join in a government cafeteria plan. If a participant does not spend the money they have set aside before the end of the calendar year, they will lose it. The setting aside is known as the “use-or-lose” rule, which states that their contributions will be lost and will not be recovered. Furthermore, the flexible spending account cannot be used beyond the plan year.
Cafeteria Benefits for Employees
Cafeteria benefits are plans designed to offer workers with a choice to access cost-based reimbursements. Employees have the privilege to select from the benefits and create a package that is suitable for them depending on an existing cost structure. Currently, cafeteria benefits have become popular in larger business establishments. A significant number of employers are less interested with offering their benefits through cafeteria benefits. The reason behind disliking cafeteria benefits is because of the more time-consuming tasks and excessive bookkeeping responsibilities affiliated with the plan. The cafeteria benefit happens to be the most underrated and underused benefits plan outlined within Section 125 of the United States tax code. The plan allows workers to withhold certain salary portions from their pre-taxed salary to cover specific medical and childcare cost.
All cafeteria benefits plans are resourceful to employees regardless of their field of specialization. The plan ascertains that employees generally receive precise number of dollars issued by the employer to obtain particular elements of the benefits plan. The ability to incorporate such measures within the plan makes it easier for the employees to acquire benefits that incorporate insurance, in addition to pretax dollars[endnoteRef:1]. The cafeteria benefits comprise of various options that incorporate different levels of health insurance and other forms options available. Other alternatives of the benefits to employees incorporate the 401(k) plan, which is a contribution plan for retirement purposes. For people dealing with other issues such as the dependent care assistance program and an adoption of assistance plan, the most commendable strategy would be to consider one of the existing benefits plans. [1: Galanaki, E. (2020). Effects of employee benefits on affective and continuance commitment during times of crisis. International Journal of Manpower, 41(2), 220-238. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJM-08-2018-0270]
One surprising fact about the cafeteria benefits involves not all employees wanting similar benefits. The option of having a customizable menu offers the workers from an organization the chance to access more take-home pay along with several other benefits to consider. The benefit affiliated with having the cafeteria benefit is to ensure employees exploit the alternative of selecting packages that align with their lifestyle. For instance, it is arguable that a worker with no health challenges is likely to discard the option of spending the cafeteria plan dollars for minimal health plan[endnoteRef:2]. Alternatively, employees with four family members have a higher chance of selecting the option of spending the cafeteria benefits on comprehensive health plan that provides a great coverage. For those less interested in spending their cafeteria benefits on health, there is an option of investing on their retirement. [2: Hall, M. A., & Monahan, A. B. (2010). Paying for individual health insurance through tax-sheltered cafeteria plans: The journal of health care organization, provision, and financing. Inquiry, 47(3), 252-61.]
Regulations are applicable to different modes of cafeteria benefits. The decision to implement the directives is designed to ensure that the application process is legal and viable to all citizens. Section 125 under the Internal Revenue Code dictates that the cafeteria benefits are excluded from any forms of calculations of the gross income for purposes of the federal income tax. Regardless of an employer’s cafeteria plan, the program is named after Title 26, Section 125 of the United States Code[endnoteRef:3]. The plan allows an employee to donate pretax dollars as part of the plan. Considering that there are no federal, state, and social security taxes withheld and dollars not included as part of the gross income, an employee has the opportunity to save between 27% and 50% through the cafeteria plan. [3: French, P. E., Goodman, D., & Morrison, M. K. C. (2014). An empirical evaluation of the influence of descriptive representation on human resource practice at the local government level. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 20(1), 47-66.]
Cafeteria benefits are popular in larger business organizations, which forces several employers are less interested with offering their benefits through cafeteria benefits. One advantage of the plan is allowing workers to withhold certain salary portions from their pre-taxed salary to cover specific medical and childcare cost. The cafeteria benefits ensure employees generally receive precise number of dollars issued by the employer to obtain particular elements of the benefits plan. An objective of cafeteria benefits is to encompass various options that incorporate different levels of health insurance and other forms options available. The alternative of having a customizable menu offers the workers from an organization the chance to access more take-home pay along with several other benefits to consider. Employees with more dependants have a greater chance of selecting the option of spending the cafeteria benefits on comprehensive plans that provides a great coverage.
Cafeteria Benefits for Employees
Cafeteria benefits are packages organized by employers to ensure that employees access various advantages prior to being taxed. Employers have to ensure that they consider various factors when offering a cafeteria plan. According to the regulations placed on cafeteria benefits, it is evident that participants have the privilege to select a single taxable along with one qualified benefit. Taxable benefits are financial advantages taken into account whenever employers are calculating earnings. The cafeteria plan is important in making sure that employees access a certain amount of dollars provided by the employers to obtain precise elements of the cafeteria benefit plan. Qualifying benefits that may consist of dental operation covers tend to be excluded from the gross earnings of employees. Benefits represent a great deal whenever one makes a decision to work for an organization. Salaries may seem as the most imperative benefits but one has to consider the packages from other benefits. The study seeks to unravel the advantages and disadvantages of cafeteria benefits for employees and the impact they have towards increasing productivity of the workforce by assessing the different packages.
The cafeteria benefit incorporates planned packages that allow employees select from the group of benefits involving medical, accident, disability, vision, in addition to group term life insurance. Each cafeteria plan often involves advantages and disadvantages to the employer as well as employees[endnoteRef:1]. Despite the wide range of packages available, it is certain that employers are in a position to only offer a single cafeteria plan to their employees. The advantages of cafeteria benefits to employers comprise of packages developed to improve the morale in addition to create competitiveness among employees during recruitment[endnoteRef:2]. The cafeteria plan further offers an employer the chance to get big tax breaks as the employees pay lesser taxes saving their employers from hefty taxation. Additionally, the cafeteria benefits are alternative ways of maintaining valuable employees since the employer offers them a variety of benefits that lessen any rising expenses[endnoteRef:3]. From an employee point of view, cafeteria benefits offer the advantage of paying lesser taxes through enabling the organization to deduct the expenses of various eligible benefits prior to the implementation of taxation on their income. [1: Poór J, Kovács IÉ, Mázásné HD, Mack Á, Fehér J. “Flexibility benefits-Cafeteria Plan. How the characteristics of the firms affect the system Cafeteria Plan in Hungary”. Journal of Eastern European and Central Asian Research (JEECAR)5, no. 1 (2018): 20-20] [2: Hall, M. A., & Monahan, A. B. (2010). Paying for individual health insurance through tax-sheltered cafeteria plans: The journal of health care organization, provision, and financing. Inquiry, 47(3), 252-61.] [3: Ali, BJ, & Anwar, G.(2021). “An Empirical Study of Employees’ Motivation and its Influence Job Satisfaction”. International Journal of Engineering, Business and Management5, no. 2 (2021): 21-30.]
A suitable outcome may involve situations whereby existing health benefits tend to be deducted from the paycheck of an employee based on pre-tax. Such scenarios enable the employee to take home an increased pay, which adds to the advantage of additional supplemental insurance products[endnoteRef:4]. Furthermore, it is possible that little to no additional expenses may be incorporated, which makes it incomparable with original income before cafeteria plans. The benefits issue employees the power to select the benefits intended to meet personal demands. In the United States, Code 125 encompasses of implications suggesting that financial values protected for personal health affiliated challenges are permissible[endnoteRef:5]. The participants in a cafeteria plan are eligible to putting a certain percentage of their wages into the benefit packages that serve as the future security ideal for personal exploit[endnoteRef:6]. For instance, most families, singles, and co-habitants have the ability to save untaxed funds that may be applicable for different kinds of treatment courtesy of the cafeteria benefits. It is possible to have participants in cafeteria benefits access packages that cover the spouses as well as dependants[endnoteRef:7]. [4: Galanaki, E. (2020). Effects of employee benefits on affective and continuance commitment during times of crisis. International Journal of Manpower, 41(2), 220-238. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/IJM-08-2018-0270] [5: 26 U.S. Code § 125 – Cafeteria Plans.” LII / Legal Information Institute, 2013. https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/26/125.] [6: Franks L. “Cafeteria Plan Compliance: The Choices for Employees Can Be Many, but the Recipes for Employers Are Exact”. Journal of Accountancy229, no. 3 (2020): 52.] [7: French, P. E., Goodman, D., & Morrison, M. K. C. (2014). An empirical evaluation of the influence of descriptive representation on human resource practice at the local government level. Journal of Public Management & Social Policy, 20(1), 47-66.]
Disadvantages affiliated with employees acquiring cafeteria plans are aligned with issues such as newly recruited personnel having to sign up for Section 125 of the cafeteria plan between 30 to 60 days after recruitment[endnoteRef:8]. An additional period when employees have the privilege to alter any details of their cafeteria plan may be during open enrollment since it operates on calendar years, which makes it impossible for workers to change, add, and get rid over any time throughout the year[endnoteRef:9]. However, there is the possibility of life threatening events that may influence the need to make changes on the cafeteria benefits as an employee. Examples of life changing scenarios that may contribute to the possibility of changing cafeteria benefits include marriage, birth, and divorce[endnoteRef:10]. Employees have the privilege of considering making changes on the packages while making personal decision such as redirecting taxable earnings that are not part of social security[endnoteRef:11]. In such circumstances, the social security benefits after retirement may be lesser. Considering that an employer is responsible for all expenses from tax free benefits, there is possibility of a having a gap placed on the overall annual benefits elected by any employee[endnoteRef:12]. [8: Laundon, Melinda, Abby Cathcart, and Paula McDonald. 2019. “Just Benefits? Employee Benefits and Organisational Justice.” Employee Relations 41 (4): 708-723. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ER-11-2017-0285.] [9: Hall, Mark A. and Amy B. Monahan. 2010. “Paying for Individual Health Insurance through Tax-Sheltered Cafeteria Plans: The Journal of Health Care Organization, Provision, and Financing.” Inquiry 47 (3) (Fall): 252-61.] [10: Schuiling, Kerri D., Therese Ann Sipe, and Judith T. Fullerton. 2019. “Compensation and Benefits Surveys for Certified Nurse-Midwives and Certified Midwives.” Nursing Economics 37 (3) (May): 126-139,151.] [11: Benko, Brian A. 2010. “The Regulatory Systems for Employee Benefits.” The Tax Lawyer 63 (3) (Spring): 239-281.] [12: Galanaki, Eleanna. 2020. “A Hidden Deterioration in Equal Pay Achievements?: The Case of Employee Benefits during the Greek Recession.” Gender in Management 35 (5): 423-444. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/GM-09-2019-0150.]
Participants in cafeteria benefits have the privilege to select a single taxable along with one qualified benefit. The qualifying benefits that may consist of dental operation covers tend to be excluded from the gross earnings of employees. The effectiveness of cafeteria benefits to employers comprise of packages developed to improve the morale in addition to create competitiveness among employees during recruitment. Cafeteria plans offer the advantage of paying lesser taxes through enabling the organization to deduct the expenses of various eligible benefits prior to the implementation of taxation on their income.
COMMON WRITING STYLE PROBLEMS WHEN WRITING SCHOLARLY EXPOSITORY ESSAYS
Note: items under sections III through XII are rubrics.
III. Thesis, and Paragraph and Sentence Structure and Logic
V. Subjects and Verbs
VI. Quotation Marks
X. Odds and Ends
For a little humor, see ”
,” by Weird Al Yankovic. (Let me know if the link no longer works or if YouTube takes down the site.)
A scholarly expository essay presents an argument, a thesis that is your interpretation of a topic. It develops an idea about a subject, building from a thesis statement that advances in a coherent, logical manner your opinion, conviction, evaluation, discovery, or point of view on a subject. An expository essay is similar to an editorial debate in The New York Times or the Wall Street Journal but only more high-powered and scholarly. See also the Expository Essay guide in the Work on Your Expository Essay module.
An argument, a critical analytical interpretation, is neither a violent disagreement nor an assertion. It is a statement supported by reason and evidence.
A thesis is an argument, and a thesis statement supplies an opinion and a reason or explanation for that opinion.
Discuss both your ideas AND your opponents’ viewpoint(s) on your topic. Your argument in a scholarly expository essay must explore various sides of the topic. You cannot be one-sided in your scholarly expository essay.
For example, you favor abortion. In your essay, you must, however, present the anti-abortion side along with the pro-abortion side.
Entries #1 through #38 are from the third edition of Writing Worth Reading (1997) by Nancy Huddleston Packer and John Timpane. Writing Worth Reading is the writing style and grammar authority that the instructor follows. Entries #39 through #45 are culled from other writing style manuals.
For writing informative and expository essays, students must learn to avoid the problems discussed under entries #5, #6, #7, #11, #12, #22, #23, #26 through #36, and #39 through #45.
Computer spell/grammar check software programs are not foolproof.
Unless stated otherwise, one point is deducted for at least one occurrence of a problem identified by the item number in the expository essay.
Use this guide along with both the Expository Essay and Endnotes guides. All three guides are located in the same module.
Caveat on quoted passages in your essay: Many of the following rules regarding writing style problems are ignored when they appear within quoted passages. If you want to indicate a correction or the correction information then one common way to rectify glaring writing style problems that appear within quoted passages is to supply the change within square brackets.
· : Mary Jane said, “Everyone has their opinion of whether Spiderman is a good guy.”
· : Mary Jane said, “Everyone has their [sic] opinion of whether Spiderman is a good guy.”
· : Mary Jane said, “Everyone has [her or his] opinion of whether Spiderman is a good guy.”
III. THESIS, AND PARAGRAPH AND SENTENCE STRUCTURE, AND LOGIC
1. A scholarly expository essay has a thesis statement supported or proven with logic and evidence. An argument does not mean an angry, insulting debate with someone with whom the writer disagrees.
. It expresses a viewpoint on a debatable issue about which intelligent, well-meaning people may disagree. A thesis statement forces the writer to explore various sides of the topic, including those of her or his opponents. It also informs the reader what to expect in the essay. The writer’s job is to convince readers that her or his point of view is worth taking seriously.
Remember, for this course, the thesis statement must be rooted in historical or sociological reality and rigorous logic; the thesis is not an opportunity to prove a hypothetical or engage in fantasy.
: your thought on your chosen topic and your key reason to explain why you hold that thought. The idea in one element must reflect or reinforce the same or similar idea in the other element. Make certain that your thesis statement is clear, unambiguous, concise, and precise.
This course relies heavily on history, sociology, and related disciplines that stress the idea of a thesis statement as one sentence. While courses in other disciplines allow for a two-sentence thesis, this course accepts only a one-sentence thesis statement.
. An assertion is a sentence that lacks an explanation or reason; it gives the reader nothing of substance to think about the topic.
Sometimes essay writers do not write the thesis statement until they finished writing the first or second rough draft of their essays when they know what they want to advance as an argument. A thesis statement takes time to construct.
Make the thesis statement the last sentence in its paragraph.
. A thesis statement paragraph provides the context for the thesis statement. The thesis statement paragraph is comprised of thematic sentences that support and logically flow toward the thesis statement. A thematic sentence presents a main idea that connects to or relates closely to the thesis statement and that explores in detail in the body of the essay. If some or all of the sentences in the thesis statement paragraph have nothing to do with the thesis statement, then a serious writing problem exists.
Make the thesis statement paragraph the first or second paragraph of a scholarly expository essay.
A good way to test your thesis statement is to ask the question “Why?” Keep asking “Why.” Even ask “why” to your “why” questions until you reach the essence of what you want to prove or argue.
NOTE: The following thesis statements are not in context of their thesis stateent paragraphs. What looks like a good thesis statement may be an assertion if the thesis statement paragraph has irrelevant sentences. Look at the examples to get a “feel” for a thesis. Do not use an example as a template for creating your statement.
· : Americans must not allow the president to wage covert wars.
· : If Americans allow the president to wage covert wars, then they sacrifice the very basis of the Constitution.
· : Americans cannot allow their government to wage covert wars as long as they believe that an open, responsive government is the key to maintain a democracy.
· : Americans must maintain a moral life.
· : Americans must live a moral life rooted in religious principles if they believe that liberty, equality, and democracy are the bedrock of a moral society, thus rooted in religious values.
· : Nationalism became a very important force during the late eighteenth century when a very clear shift occurred from individualism and private property rights to concerns over a national identity and a nation’s future.
· : In the Western world, nationalism emerged as a powerful force that bound all citizens of a nation when people valued social unity of their nation over individualism.
· : Through his hilarious subversion and exploitation of stereotypes, racism, clichés, and sexism, Dave Chappelle has proven to be the greatest black comedian of our time.
· : A great comedian is one who can make audiences step outside their comfort zones and laugh, and Dave Chappelle proves to be a great capable of making Americans of all races comfortable laughing at and openly talking about the absurdity of racism, racial stereotypes and clichés, and sexism.
2. Streamline your sentences. Keep sentences to one idea. This rule also helps to avoid run-on sentences. Much verbiage or redundancy = See the Expository Essay Guide.
· : Thomas Edison was the original inventor of the electric light bulb.
· : Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.
3. Ideally, the subject of all sentences in a paragraph must be the same or similar to the subject in the first (topic) sentence of the paragraph. All the sentences in the paragraph, however, must reflect the idea conveyed in the first (topic) sentence of the paragraph.
4. The topic sentence of a paragraph either connects to a theme that supports the thesis statement or introduces a single topic or idea in its paragraph. A good topic sentence does both.
5. Avoid problems of pronoun-antecedent agreement. A pronoun must agree in person, number, and gender with its antecedent. A pronoun referring to a collective noun (for example, “audience,” “committee,” or a name of an organization) is singular when the emphasis is on the group as a whole. Pronoun-antecedent problems = 5 points deducted.
· : The Society of Friends will make their announcement tomorrow.
· : The Society of Friends will make its announcement tomorrow.
· : Once someone takes it on their own to worship in their own way, they tend to rely on the church less for guidance and attend church less, leading to a cut off from the church community as a whole.
· : After making the decision to worship in one’s own way, he or she tends to rely less on the church for guidance and for a community of fellowship.
· Problem: Despite their failed efforts, the United States has not settled for trying to liberate or aid solely Africa.
· : Despite its failed efforts, the United States has not settled for trying to liberate or aid solely Africa.
· : Realistically speaking, everyone has their own viewpoint of how they place themselves in the racial spectrum.
· : Realistically speaking, everyone has a viewpoint of how to place oneself in the racial spectrum.
· : Realistically speaking, individuals have their own viewpoints of how they place themselves in the racial spectrum.
· : Realistically speaking, everyone has her or his own viewpoint of how to place oneself in the racial spectrum.
6. Avoid problems of pronoun reference. The pronoun must refer clearly and accurately to its antecedent. The antecedent is either in the same sentence with the pronoun or in the previous sentence. If the pronoun is too far from its antecedent, then use a noun or its substitute instead of the pronoun. Problems of pronoun reference commonly occur when one uses “it,” “that,” “these,” “they,” “this,” and “those,” especially at the beginning of a sentence or clause.
· : Essentially, the removal of the more blatant forms of American apartheid has made it too easy for too many to believe today that all forms of discrimination have disappeared. [In this example, does “it” refer to “removal,” “apartheid,” or something else?]
· : Many Americans now think that all forms of racial discrimination ceased to exist after the dismantling of American apartheid in the 1960s.
· : Studying parental attitudes versus their child’s attitudes will give us a more detailed look at the actual progress society is making toward equality.
· : One gains a detailed look at how society is striving toward equality from studying the attitudes of parents and their children.
7. Unless writing an autobiographical essay or quoting passages, avoid using “I,” “me,” “my,” “we,” “us,” “our,” “you,” “myself,” “yourself,” “ourselves,” “mine”, “yours” and other first and second person pronouns. Find other ways to write without relying on such pronouns. Let your presentation or narrative speak for you. Improper use of first or second person pronouns = 4 points deducted.
· : I focused on prejudice in my essay.
· : This essay focuses on prejudice.
· : I know for a fact that racism still exists in schools because I have seen it first hand.
· : This essayist knows that racism still exists in schools because she has seen it first hand.
· : Racism still exists in schools because this essayist has seen it first hand.
V. SUBJECTS AND VERBS
10. Watch for subject-verb agreement. Singular subject takes singular verb; plural subject agrees with plural verb. Often an organization or a nation takes a singular verb.
· : The United States are a superpower.
· : The United States is a superpower.
11. Avoid using “there” as a subject, e.g. “there is,” “there are,” “there was,” “there were,” “there has.” A “there-verb” form is an expletive (filler). Use of the “there” expletive = 5 points deducted.
· : There were occasions when there was governmental agreement to intervene in currency markets and to intervene in a coordinated manner. There was some concerted intervention after January 31 and last week.
· : On occasion, the government agreed to intervene in currency markets in a coordinated manner. Some concerted intervention occurred after January 31 and last week.
12. Avoid using “it” as a subject without an antecedent. Such an “it-verb” form is an expletive (filler). Use of the “it” expletive = 3 points deducted.
· : Even if it were true that you and your mate enjoy a perfect marriage, it would still be just as true that, if certain sociologists are to be believed, there are 125,000 other possible mates who would suit you just as well.
· : Even if you and your mate enjoy a perfect marriage, certain sociologists claim that 125,000 other possible mates would suit you just as well.
· : Some, however, may argue a different point of view, declaring that it is actually the acts of homosexual people that are the root cause of homophobia and the massive amount of discrimination against homosexuals.
· : Some, however, declare that the actions of homosexuals are the root cause of homophobia and heterosexist discrimination.
13. Make people or other agents of action the subject of a sentence or the center of action in the sentence. This problem often accompanies problem #14.
· : Renouncing a former state to obtain real existence is an adjustment requiring understanding of what is seen, comprehending its causes, and coping with it.
· : In order to renounce their former state and improve themselves, clients must understand how they perceive the world, why they perceive it that way, and how they can cope with it.
· : Clients need to renounce their former condition and improve themselves in order to understand how they perceive the world, why they perceive it that way, and how they can cope with it.
14. Minimize using passive voice “to be” verbs “is,” “are,” “was,” and “were.” Instead, use active voice as often as possible. This problem often accompanies problem #13.
· : “The states were in a position of anarchy against the national government.”
· : “The states defied the national government.”
· : Thomas Edison was the original inventor of the electric light bulb.
· : Thomas Edison invented the light bulb.
15. Avoid verb contractions.
· : They weren’t any different from their neighbors.
· : They were not different from their neighbors.
· : They’re almost like a family to their neighbors.
· : They are almost like a family to their neighbors.
16. Avoid using “could,” “may,” “might,” “should,” and “would.” Especially avoid using these verbs when describing what people said, wrote, or did in the past. Such verbs, especially in the subjunctive mood, connote doubt, vagueness, iffiness or other references to contingent or hypothetical action. Since such verbs raise doubt or wishy-washy sentiments, .
17. Use the appropriate verb tense. Especially use the past tense when describing what people said, wrote, or did in the past.
VI. QUOTATION MARKS
18. In American English, the period and comma always appear inside quotation marks.
· : “Nowadays, because break dancing and graffiti are not as ‘prominent’, the names Hip-Hop and Rap have been used interchangeably”.
· : “Nowadays, because break dancing and graffiti are not as ‘prominent,’ the terms Hip-Hop and Rap have been used interchangeably.”
19. Colons and semicolons fall outside quotation marks.
· : “Rap is merely the music;” Hip-hop is the life.
· : “Rap is merely the music”; Hip-hop is the life.
20. Place a question mark or an exclamation point inside quotation marks if it is part of the quotation. Place the question mark or exclamation point outside if it is not part of the quotation.
· : Many people remember Malcolm X for his famous “By any means necessary”! But does anyone recall his statement, “The United States hadn’t colonized the African continent, it had colonized 22 million blacks here on this continent?”
· : Many people remember Malcolm X for his famous statement “By any means necessary!” But does anyone recall him saying, “The United States hadn’t colonized the African continent, it had colonized 22 million blacks here on this continent”?
21. For a quotation within a quotation, use single quotation marks.
· : “Nowadays, because break dancing and graffiti are not as “prominent,” the names Hip-Hop and Rap have been used interchangeably.”
· : “Nowadays, because break dancing and graffiti are not as ‘prominent,’ the names Hip-Hop and Rap have been used interchangeably.”
22. Use a semicolon to indicate a close connection between two independent clauses that are not connected by the coordinating conjunction “and,” “but,” or “for.”
· : Racism is really about power, it is an ideology of power issues and supporting white supremacy.
· : Racism is really about power; it is an ideology of power issues supporting white supremacy.
23. Use a comma before a coordinating conjunction that connects two independent clauses, that is, before the “and,” “but, “for,” “nor,” “or,” and “yet” in a compound sentence.
· : At first African Americans in Hoxie, Arkansas, believed desegregation was a good thing but after their lives were threatened, many of them began asking if re-segregating themselves was really a bad thing.
· : At first African Americans in Hoxie, Arkansas, believed desegregation was a good thing, but after their lives were threatened, many of them began asking if re-segregating themselves was really a bad thing.
24. Use a comma to set off an initial long phrase or dependent clause from the main part of the sentence.
· : As the country is growing and changing old prejudices and hatred are finally being buried.
· : As the country is growing and changing, old prejudices and hatred are finally being buried.
25. Use commas to tell the reader whether information is or is not essential to the meaning of the sentence.
· : This illustrates the idea that tolerance of all races especially African Americans is at the highest it has ever been.
· : This illustrates the idea that tolerance of all races, especially African Americans, is the highest it has ever been.
26. Use a pair of commas to separate a title, for example, “Jr.,” “M.D.,” “Ph.D.,” “Inc.,” and “Ltd.,” from the rest of the sentence.
· : Martin Luther King Jr. was assassinated in April 1968.
· : Martin Luther King, Jr., was assassinated in April 1968.
27. Use commas to set off day and year. Do not use commas to set off only the month and year.
· : On December 7, 1941 the Imperial Japanese Air Force bombed Pearl Harbor, and the war ended officially in September 1945.
· : On December 7, 1941, the Imperial Japanese Air Force bombed Pearl Harbor, and the war ended officially in September 1945.
28. Use commas after both city and state (and also city and nation).
· : Every year Aunt Hepzibah leaves her boardinghouse in Bent Twig, Wyoming to visit Harry.
· : Every year Aunt Hepzibah leaves her boardinghouse in Bent Twig, Wyoming, to visit Harry.
· : Wards seven and eight in Washington D.C. are the poorest in the city.
· : Wards seven and eight in Washington, D.C., are the poorest in the city.
29. Spell out digits and figures of one or two words for nonscientific writing, except for dates (year; month and year; month, date, and year), page numbers, and divisions of books and scores. Definitely spell out whole numbers from one through one hundred and fractions. For other numbers, numerals are used. Percents in the form of whole numbers are best expressed with the numeral followed by the word percent or the symbol for percent, but be consistent, either use the word percent or the percent symbol.
Since numerous exceptions and special cases exist for numbers and consistency and readability are important, check first with your instructor and/or writing style manuals.
· : Last Saturday, 10 students demonstrated at Beaver Stadium, and 200 police officers arrested them.
· : Last Saturday, ten students demonstrated at Beaver Stadium, and two hundred police officers arrested them.
· : 8 grams of fat in this casserole contain 160 calories.
· : Eight grams of fat in this casserole contain 160 calories.
· : Many people think that the late 1700s and the 19th century were bloody eras, but the 20th century has been the most violent era to date in world history.
· : Many scholars think that the late eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries were bloody eras, but the twentieth century has been the most violent era to date in world history.
· : You need 1/3 cup of sugar, 1/8 tsp of salt, and 4 3/4 cups of flour.
· : You need one-third cup of sugar, one-eighth tsp of salt, and four and three-fourth cups of flour.
30. For nonscientific essays, spell out a number if it appears as the first item of a sentence.
· : 234 women and 125 men marched in a “Take Back the Night” demonstration.
· : Two hundred thirty four women and 125 men marched in a “Take Back the Night” demonstration.
X. ODDS AND ENDS
31. Avoid using “a lot,” “a lot of,” “lots of,” or “lots” because they are colloquialisms for an expository essay. Use “many,” “most,” “much,” and similar terms. Use of “a lot,” “a lot of,” “lots of,” or “lots” = 5 points deducted.
· : Students have lots of complaints about writing scholarly expository essays.
· : Students have numerous complaints about writing scholarly expository essays.
32. Place “however” next or near to the verb. However means “in spite of,” “no matter,” or “in whatever manner or way.”
· “However” does not substitute for “but” because the term, “however,” stresses the thought that immediately precedes it while the term, “but,” stresses the thought that immediately follows it.
· Avoid starting a sentence or a clause with “however” if you mean “but.” Unless you know exactly what you are saying, avoid starting a sentence or a clause with “however.”
· All writing styles approve of starting a sentence or a clause with “but.”
· : However, we are opposed to the United States going to a war against Iran.
· : We oppose, however, the United States waging a war against Iran.
· : But we oppose the United States waging a war against Iran.
· : Many people think interracial dating is fine; however, many of them do not want to date people of another race.
· : Many people think interracial dating is fine; many of them, however, do not want to date people of another race.
· : Many people think interracial dating is fine, but many of them do not want to date people of another race.
33. Avoid using “due to” as a preposition because, depending on usage, the term, “due,” is an adjective, a noun, or a verb, never a preposition. Use “because of” or other substitutes. Use of “due to” = 5 points deducted.
· : Network executives canceled the show due to technical difficulties.
· : Network executives canceled the show because of technical difficulties.
34. To form the possessive of a singular noun or indefinite pronoun, add an apostrophe followed by an “s.”
· Examples: Lincoln’s beard, Amos’s bee sting, the business’s employees
35. To form the possessive of a plural noun not ending in –s, add an apostrophe followed by an “s.”
· Examples: children’s laughter, the women’s glee club, people’s understanding of birds
36. To form the possessive of a plural noun ending in “s,” add an apostrophe.
· Example: the girls’ rifle club
37. To form the possessive of a noun composed of several words, add the “‘s” (apostrophe, s) only to the last word.
· Example: my brother-in-law’s haircut
38. “Its” is the possessive of “it.” The possessive form of it does not have an apostrophe. With an apostrophe, it’s means “it is” or “it has.” Misuse of the possessive for it = 5 points deducted.
39. For easily confused words, which word do you mean to write? Use of wrong words = 5 points deducted.
· For example: “there” or “their”; “bare” or “bear”; “than” or “then”; “to,” “too,” or two”; “were” or “where”
40. Spell out names of nations and states in the body of the essay. If necessary, substitute a noun if spelling out the name of a nation and state means an awkward sentence.
Do not spell out “D.C.” in Washington, D.C.
Keep the abbreviation if it is part of an organization’s name.
· : The history of the U.S. has been one of contradictions.
· : The history of the United States has been one of contradictions.
· Even a better correction: The history of America has been one of contradictions.
· Exception: The U.S. Supreme Court voted five to four in favor of Republican Party candidate George W. Bush in the 2000 presidential election.
· Exception: Some people argue that the Illuminati control the U.S. Congress.
· Exception: The White House and the Capitol are located in Washington, D.C., the capital of the United States.
41. Spell out initials (of organizations, institutions, concepts, and so forth) when first mentioned in the essay.
· : Some people argue that the Illuminati within the U.S. government control the CIA and the CFR. They think the Illuminati have been using the CIA and the CFR to achieve world domination.
· : Some people argue that the Illuminati within the U.S. government control the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). They think the Illuminati have been using the CIA and the CFR to achieve world domination. (The second sentence could read: They think the Illuminati have been using these two organizations to achieve world domination.)
· : Some people argue that the Illuminati within the U.S. government control the CIA (Central Intelligence Agency) and the CFR (Council on Foreign Relations). They think the Illuminati have been using the CIA and the CFR to achieve world domination. (The second sentence could read: They think the Illuminati have been using these two organizations to achieve world domination.)
· : Mary McFadden attends Penn State.
· : Mary McFadden attends Pennsylvania State University.
42. Minimize in the essay the number of times a dependent clause begins a sentence. This item is similar to item #13.
· : With the increase in the number of women in the labor force and dual earning couples, issues and conflicts have been brought forth.
· : Issues and conflicts arose with the increase in the number of women and dual-earning couples in the labor force.
· : Because work and family are seen as greedy institutions and because individual resources of time and energy are viewed as fixed, conflict is seen as inevitable.
· : Conflict seems inevitable because work and family are greedy institutions and because time and energy are fixed resources.
43. Use a person’s full when first mentioned in the essay. Refer to an individual’s full name (or surname when the full name is unknown), not her or his first name, when the individual is first mentioned in the essay. Use the person’s surname or full name subsequent times after first mentioning that person by full name.
· : Ludwig von Beethoven is considered to be one of the most influential composers of …
TABLE OF CONTENTS
· Thesis Statement and Thesis Statement Paragraph
· Writing Style authority
· Authorized Dictionaries
· Inclusion of Opposing Viewpoints
III. Basic Guidelines
A scholarly expository essay is a structured, informative, logical argument (thesis) of your viewpoints and your opponents’ thoughts on a given topic. The scholarly expository essay is about arguing your ideas, presenting your AND your opponents’ ideas, and offering a critical analysis of points of view. It is not about overwhelming the reader with facts or regurgitating what you have read. The expository essay is about your interpretation of the arguments found in various sources about your topic.
An expository essay is a logical argument, not a violent or negative disagreement, but a reasonable statement supported by logic and evidence. It is your thoughtful, reasoned, relatively balanced, analytically argumentative interpretation of your topic. You use logic and evidence to prove your thesis, which is an elegant or sophisticated statement of your opinion or viewpoint. Construct a clear, succinct, unmistakable thesis statement that forces you to answer within the statement itself the “why?” or the “how come?” to the way you think about your topic.
If you have no idea on how to write an expository essay, especially on how to construct the thesis statement, then contact the instructor. Contact the instructor and/or a reference librarian if you need to know the background to your topic.
The expository essay assignments involve the following.
· Write three short essays (each a draft of a different portion or section of the expository essay. See also details in each short essay guide.
· Write the thesis statement and the thesis statement paragraph as part of short essay 03.
· Combine the edited short essays into a draft of your expository essay and expand the draft to write the final version of your expository essay.
Thesis Statement and Thesis Statement Paragraph
A scholarly expository essay has a thesis statement. A thesis statement is your argument supported by logic and evidence.
The thesis statement (in the discipline of history) is comprised of one sentence that presents your central idea that is debatable. It expresses a viewpoint on a topic about which reasonable, well-meaning people might disagree. A thesis statement allows the essayist to explore various sides of the topic, including opposing ideas. It also informs the reader what to expect in the essay.
Roughly defined, a thesis statement is a sentence that contains two elements: your opinion on the topic and your reason that explains why you think the way you do about your topic. Both elements of the thesis statement must contain the same idea or theme. Make certain that your thesis statement is clear, unambiguous, concise, and precise.
A well-constructed thesis statement paragraph frames and supports a thesis. The thesis statement paragraph is comprised of thematic sentences that support and logically flow toward the thesis statement. A thematic sentence presents a main idea that connects to the thesis statement, and it is explored in detail in the body of the essay. Make the thesis statement the last sentence in the first or second paragraph of the expository essay.
See the Common Writing Style Problems Guide for details about the thesis statement.
Writing Style Authority
Your instructor’s authority for writing style and thesis is Nancy Packer and John Timpane, Writing Worth Reading, third (or later) edition.
Authorized Dictionaries and Encyclopedias
The instructor’s authority on spelling, definition, usage, and etymology is the latest edition of:
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language
The Oxford English Dictionary
available on the library’s databases page.
Never cite Wikipedia
, an encyclopedia on the World Wide Web, because Wikipedia does not provide peer review of its entries.
Inclusion of Opposing Viewpoints
Discuss both your ideas AND your opponents’ ideas. The argument in a scholarly expository essay must explore different sides, including their strengths and weaknesses, of the topic. Your job is to present major sides of the debate or controversy fairly and honestly while you present your interpretation of the topic.
You cannot make the essay one-sided. You should find flaws in your opponents’ argument or premises and be logical in explaining your thesis. Be honest in stating that your viewpoint has weaknesses. For example, if you are for a periodic increase in the minimum wage, then you must be honest in carefully presenting different anti-periodic increase in the minimum wage and anti-minimum wage views while carefully explaining why your views are worthwhile.
Use endnotes, NOT footnotes, NOT parenthetical references. You must cite various sources to support your argument. Documentation must be thorough enough to give the reader a clear idea of the evidence for specific claims. Have as many cited sources as needed above the required minimum number of sources to support your essay.
An endnote may contain more than one title of a cited source. If appropriate, use the assigned readings for the course and other sources, for example, books, journals, newspapers, classroom discussion, messages, lecture notes, websites, and so forth.
All cited sources must conform to the Chicago style of documentation. See the Endnotes Guide for details.
You increase your chances of writing a high quality, scholarly expository essay when you engage in good, in-depth research. More importantly, you will increase your chances of writing a high quality, scholarly expository essay when you choose a topic that you love, that truly excites you. Always think about your topic. Continue to look at your topic from different angles. Play mind games with your topic. Always be critical about your argument.
Be very careful when searching the Internet. You must exercise critical thought when looking at various websites because some websites, which appear so well written in conveying ideas and facts, are truly disreputable. As for interpretations, you must learn to be judicious in your assessment of the information.
Use the library. Reference librarians are ready to assist you. They will work with you to find material from high quality sources that in some cases are not on the Internet. They also have a good idea about which websites are effective for your topic. You must have an outline of how to approach your research topic before consulting with a reference librarian. But do not wait until the last month of the semester to talk to a reference librarian because the reference librarian will be assisting many students from numerous courses.
The Endnotes Guide has two parts. Part I has brief instructions on creating endnotes using Microsoft Word versions 97-2003 and 2007. Part II lists examples of how to format citations for endnotes using the Chicago Style of documentation for notes mainly for literature, history, and the arts.
PART I. BRIEF DIRECTIONS TO CREATE ENDNOTES USING MICROSOFT WORD VERSION 97-2003 AND VERSION 2007 (or higher)
Let the software do the work for you.
Endnotes are citations grouped at the very end of a document, for example, after all of the chapters in a book, at the end of an essay, at the end of a chapter in a book, or at the end of an article.
Remember, click Apply immediately after you changed the number format for endnotes from Roman numerals to Arabic numerals.
Remember, read about the endnotes feature in the software’s Help or Tutorial file.
Remember, an endnote can contain more than one cited source.
STEPS for Word version 97-2003 (note I am doing this from memory because I do not have Word 97-2003. If someone still uses Word 97-2003, please inform the instructor if the procedure is correct):
1. Position the cursor after the final punctuation mark at the very end of the sentence that you want to reference with one or more cited sources. That is position the cursor at the very end of the sentence after the very last character, e.g. a period, question mark, or a closing quotation mark.
2. Click on Insert
3. Click on Reference
4. Click on Footnote
5. Click on Endnote
5a. When you click endnote, the program displays Roman numerals (i, ii, iii…), but you must use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…)
5b. Click on Number format
5c. Select Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…)
5d. Click on Apply
6. Word will remember the settings for endnotes; so, from this point on, all you have to do is click on insert for subsequent citations.
7. To create your endnote, click on Insert, Reference, Insert, and Word creates the citation number in the text and in the endnotes area
8. In the endnotes area, type the citation information according to Chicago style of documentation
STEPS for Word version 2007:
1. Position the cursor after the final punctuation mark at the very end of the sentence that you want to reference with one or more cited sources. That is position the cursor at the very end of the sentence after the very last character, e.g. a period, question mark, or a closing quotation mark.
2. Click on the References tab
3. Click on a little square with arrow (to the right of the word, Footnotes) at the bottom right corner of the References tab to open a Dialog Box labeled “Footnote & Endnote”
4. Click the Endnote button
5. When you click endnote, the program displays Roman numerals (i, ii, iii…), but you must use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3…)
5a. Click on Number format
5b. Select Arabic numbers (1, 2, 3…)
5c. Click on Apply
6. Word will remember the settings for endnotes; so, from this point on, all you have to do is click on insert endnotes for subsequent citations.
7. To create your endnote, click on Reference, Insert Endnote, and Word creates the citation number in the text and in the endnotes area
8. In the endnotes area, type the citation information according to Chicago style of documentation
PART II. EXAMPLES OF COMMON TYPES OF CITATIONS FOR ENDNOTES
For LER458Y, endnotes and citations follow the Chicago style of documentation. You can find more details about the Chicago style on many websites, but this brief guide should satisfy at least 95% of your needs.
The below examples of citations are formatted for endnotes, not for bibliographies.
Notice that with endnote citations under the Chicago style of documentation, the author’s name appears as first name, middle initial or middle name, and last name and that pages numbers indicating where the essayist found the specific fact or information are indicated for books and journal articles.
A quick “rule of thumb” when citing from the Internet
Indicate the parent URL if the item is from a periodical database, particularly subscription databases like ProQuest, MUSE, or JSTOR (via the Pennsylvania State University Libraries (http://www.libraries.psu.edu/eres/PSU_azlist.html#azlist).
Indicate the full URL if the item is a web document, often ending in html, htm, or shtml, for example, http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/G/htmlG/goodntimes/goodtime.htm.
BOOKS (PRINT AND ONLINE)
Your most important or common examples for citing books are in entries #1 through #4, #7, #9, #10, and #14.
1. BASIC FORMAT FOR A PRINT BOOK
William H. Rehnquist, The Supreme Court: A History (New York: Knopf, 2001), 204.
2. BASIC FORMAT FOR AN ONLINE BOOK
Heinz Kramer, A Changing Turkey: The Challenge to Europe and the United States (Washington, DC: Brookings Press, 2000), 85, http://brookings.nap.edu/books/0815750234/html/index.html.
3. TWO OR THREE AUTHORS
Michael D. Coe and Mark Van Stone, Reading the Maya Glyphs (London: Thames and Hudson, 2002), 129-30.
4. FOUR OR MORE AUTHORS
Lynn Hunt and others, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures (Boston: Bedford/St. Martin’s, 2001), 541.
5. UNKNOWN AUTHOR
The Men’s League Handbook on Women’s Suffrage (London, 1912), 23.
6. EDITED WORK WITHOUT AN AUTHOR
Jack Beatty, ed., Colossus: How the Corporation Changed America (New York: Broadway Books, 2001), 127.
7. EDITED WORK WITH AN AUTHOR
Ted Poston, A First Draft of History, ed. Kathleen A. Hauke (Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2000), 46.
8. TRANSLATED WORK
Tonino Guerra, Abandoned Places, trans. Adria Bernardi (Barcelona: Guernica, 1999), 71.
9. EDITION OTHER THAN THE FIRST
Andrew F. Rolle, California: A History, 5th ed. (Wheeling, IL: Harlan Davidson, 1998), 243.
10. VOLUME IN A MULTIVOLUME WORK
James M. McPherson, Ordeal by Fire, vol. 2, The Civil War (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1993), 205.
11. WORK IN AN ANTHOLOGY
Zora Neale Hurston, “From Dust Tracks on a Road,” in The Norton Book of American Autobiography, ed. Jay Parini (New York: Norton, 1999), 336.
12. LETTER IN A PUBLISHED COLLECTION
Thomas Gainsborough to Elizabeth Rasse, 1753, in The Letters of Thomas Gainsborough, ed. John Hayes (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2001), 5.
13. WORK IN A SERIES
R. Keith Schoppa, The Columbia Guide to Modern Chinese History, Columbia Guides to Asian History (New York: Columbia University Press, 2000), 256-58.
14. ENCYCLOPEDIA OR DICTIONARY
Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th ed., s.v. “Monroe Doctrine.”
NOTE: The abbreviation “s.v.” is for the Latin sub verbo (“under the word”).
15. SACRED TEXT
Matt. 20.4-9 (Revised Standard Version).
ARTICLES IN PERIODICALS (PRINT AND ONLINE)
16. ARTICLE IN A JOURNAL: For an article in a print journal, include the volume and issue numbers and the date.If the article is paginated, give a page number in the endnote.
Jonathan Zimmerman, “Ethnicity and the History Wars in the 1920s,” Journal of American History 87, no. 1 (2000): 101.
For unpaginated articles, page references are not possible, but in your endnote you may include a “locator,” such as a numbered paragraph or a heading from the article, as in the below example for an article published online.
For an article accessed through a database service such as EBSCOhost, JSTOR, MUSE, or ProQuest, or for an article published online, include the parent URL, for example, http://www.proquest.com/ or https://www.jstor.org/ and not the full web site address of the item.
Journal article from a database service:
Eugene F. Provenzo, Jr., “Time Exposure,” Educational Studies 34, no. 2 (2003): 266, http://search.ebscohost.com/
Journal article published online:
Linda Belau, “Trauma and the Material Signifier,” Postmodern Culture 11, no. 2 (2001): par. 6, http://pmc.iath.virginia.edu/text-only/issue.101/11.2belau.txt
17. ARTICLE IN A MAGAZINE. For a print article, provide a page number in the endnote (and a page range in the bibliography).
Joy Williams, “One Acre,” Harper’s, February 2001, 62.
For an article accessed through a database service such as FirstSearch or for an article published online, include the parent URL.
If the article is paginated, give a page number in the endnote (and a page range in the bibliography). For unpaginated articles, page references are not possible.
Magazine article from a database service:
David Pryce-Jones, “The Great Sorting Out: Postwar Iraq,” National Review, May 5, 2003, 17, http://newfirstsearch.oclc.org/
Magazine article published online:
Fiona Morgan, “Banning the Bullies,” Salon, March 15, 2001. http://www.salon.com/2001/03/15/bullying_2/
18. ARTICLE IN A NEWSPAPER. For newspaper articles – whether in print or online – page numbers are not necessary. A section letter or number, if available, is sufficient.
Dan Barry, “A Mill Closes, and a Hamlet Fades to Black,” New York Times, February 16, 2001, sec. A.
For an article accessed through a database such as ProQuest or for an article published online, include the parent URL, for example, http://www.proquest.com/
Newspaper article from a database service:
Gina Kolata, “Scientists Debating Future of Hormone Replacement,” New York Times, October 23, 2002, http://www.proquest.com/
Newspaper article published online:
Phil Willon, “Ready or Not,” Los Angeles Times, December 2, 2001, http://www.latimes.com/news/la-foster-special.special.
19. UNSIGNED ARTICLE. When the author of a periodical article is unknown, treat the periodical itself as the author or follow the optional method.
BostonGlobe, “Renewable Energy Rules,” August 11, 2003, sec. A.
Optional: “Renewable Energy Rules,” Boston Globe, August 11, 2003, sec. A.
20. BOOK REVIEW
Nancy Gabin, review of The Other Feminists: Activists in the Liberal Establishment, by Susan M. Hartman, Journal of Women’s History 12, no. 3 (2000): 230.
21. WEBSITES AND POSTINGS
Include as much of the following information as is available: author, title of the site, sponsor of the site, and the site’s URL. When no author is named, treat the sponsor or the parent organization as the author.
Kevin Rayburn, The 1920s, ftp://ftp.heritageacademies.com/ET/CurriculumCenter/HGGLessons/MI%20EPIC%20HGG%20BINDERS/7th%20Grade/PDFs/TheTwenties/RoaringTwenties/TwoVeiws.pdf
NOTE: The Chicago Manual of Style does not advise including the date you accessed a Web source, but you may provide an access date after the URL if the cited material is time-sensitive: for example,
http://www.history.com/this-day-in-history (accessed May 1, 2005).
22. SHORT DOCUMENT FROM A WEB SITE. Include as many of the following elements as are available: author’s name, title of the short work, title of the site, sponsor of the site, and the URL. When no author is named, treat the site’s sponsor as the author.
Sheila Connor, “Historical Background,” Garden and Forest, Library of Congress, http://www.loc.gov/preservation/about/prd/gardfor/essays/connor.html.
PBS Online, “Media Giants,” Frontline: The Merchants of Cool, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/cool/giants/.
23. ONLINE POSTING OR E-MAIL: If an online posting has been archived, include a URL, as in the following example. E-mails that are not part of an online discussion are treated as personal communications (see item 26 below). (Online postings and e-mails are not included in the bibliography.)
Janice Klein, posting to State Museum Association discussion list, June 19, 2003, http://listserv.nmmnh-abq.mus.nm.us/scripts/wa.exe?A2=ind0306c&L=sma-l&F=lf&S=&P=81.
OTHER SOURCES (PRINT, ONLINE, MULTIMEDIA)
24. GOVERNMENT DOCUMENT
U.S.Department of State, Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers, 1943 (Washington, DC: GPO, 1965), 562.
25. UNPUBLISHED DISSERTATION
Stephanie Lynn Budin, “The Origins of Aphrodite (Greece)” (PhD diss., University of Pennsylvania, 2000), 301-2.
26. PERSONAL COMMUNICATION
Sara Lehman, e-mail message to author, August 13, 2003.
27. PUBLISHED OR BROADCAST INTERVIEW
Ron Haviv, interview by Charlie Rose, The Charlie Rose Show, PBS, February 12, 2001.
28. VIDEO OR DVD
The Secret of Roan Inish, DVD, directed by John Sayles (1993; Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Video, 2000).
29. SOUND RECORDING
Gustav Holst, The Planets, Royal Philharmonic, André Previn, Telarc compact disc 80133.
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