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As I said, I need someone who can fix my essay on grammer and punctuation, also I need my essay to be more concise, the revision is also needed. Also need to fix the MLA format and create a work cited page by using MLA format. I have post hyperlinks in the drat

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Shaolin Gui
Danilo Caputo
Writing 39C
30 April 2020
Context project draft 2
When it comes to the topic of climate change. People would frequently thinking
about controversial questions such as greenhouse gas emissions, sea-leveling rising,
global warming and many more. With the development of modern society, scientists
and government officials keep seeking methods to exploit natural resource and use it
to make countries prospering around the world. Factories start to produce more and
more coals, oils, metal that were extracted underneath the earth. Air and land are
contaminated by the toxic chemicals from those industrial entities, Air pollution, for
instance, is one of the commonly acknowledged factor accelerate the process of
global warming, toxic chemical particles released from factories that suspending in
the air and can prevent outcoming radiations from going out.Thus more greenhouse
gas is in the atmosphere. The polluted air from factories could bring about unexpected
consequences on health. According to WHO( The world health organization) that
people will have a greater risk of building lung cancer, stroke and heart disease as
negative effects of breathing polluted air. It is worse than smoking tobacco regularly,
air pollution caused by humans and it is harming ourselves! In order to restore the
environment, governments around the world begin to uses regulations and policies to
relieve human activities on the environment. For example, several clean air acts were
issued by U.S government in twentieth century to reduce and set up the standard air
qualities. It seems that federal government had done a decent job to protect the
environment especially there are numerous environment polices currently and many
more in the past. But today the problem is still getting worse and worse. There is no
uniform standard for states in America on regulating environment.
When it comes to environmental issues such as global warming , The efforts
federal government put in were tremendous and it seems like there were clear
guidelines decades ago regarding to environmental educations to the public.
According to an article published by Journal of Environmental Health, the U.S
congress find the deterioration of quality of nation’s environmental as well as
ecological system have posed threat to human itself and it is necessary to educate
citizens about environment.( Amer 32) it is a fact that American government had
noticed the problems of the environment and tried to solve it and later in the article
author also mentions how several acts started to have positive impacts. It is
irresponsible to claim federal government did not respond the problem of climate
change at first place.There were clear regulations written and companies gradually
took environmental problem seriously. For instance, at the beginning of
environmental movement in United States in twentieth century, President Nixon
initiated the national environmental policy act to set up environmental agency Council
on environmental quality and established federal environmental assessment and
environmental impact statement for companies and environmental protection agency
has the authority to evaluate local and state environment regulations.. It was the first
act on federal level regarding to environmental issues. However, the local government
may have totally different regulations on local environment. It create the dilemma that
many companies may not approach or find a way to get around to federal government.
Though the EPA has the authority to assess it. The effectiveness of NEPA may be
hindered. In addition, U.S would also experience less climate change effect today. It is
important to reinforce regulations and laws constantly and it is also the federal
government’s responsibility to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of domestic
companies in implementing environmental regulations.The two graphs below are data
of greenhouse gas emission.
They are excerpted from the Environmental Protection Agency and those charts
EPA uses to compare the greenhouse gas emission between the States and rest of the
world. It is not difficult to notice the United States accounts for about one-sixth of the
world’s carbon dioxide emissions on average. There were over 150 countries around
the world at that moment and United States was surely one of the main contributors to
climate change. Industries and companies keep emit excessive carbon dioxide and
other harmful particles in the air. As a consequence, global warming will continuously
getting worse. The possible solution at the moment could be reinforcing current
environmental laws and put strict regulations on environmental-related businesses
from local and federal level. It requires a cohesive effort from the national, and state
governments, as well as the general public. Greenhouse gases are one of the factors to
climate change, earth is getting warmer and warmer, the signal to slow down the
global warming have yet to emerge. Of course, there are always questioners here who
would deny the importance of federal government and believe local governments are
able to come up with the best solution for each region. It is absolute right that local
governments know their people better, comparing to federal level. But people also
have to recognize that in America, every state government is independent from each
other and they have no right to regulate and supervise other state governments. The
federal government is different, it has supreme legislative power over state
government. According to the Constitution of United States, the supremacy clause
states that federal law always overrides states law when two laws are contradicted
each other and federal government possesses power of nullification of state laws. The
environmental issues requires uniform standard on environmental related businesses.
Actions by the States alone are not enough and all major countries around the world
need to respond together in order to slow down climate change.
Federal government starts to find a solution for climate change on domestic
level. From domestic perspective, it is important to raise environmental-related
businesses’ awareness on global warming. They need to know that their decision
matters! And politicians should also give certain amount of compensations for
businesses who made sacrifices in order to slow down climate change. One of the
main leader of environmental-related businesses is energy industry, During president
Barrack Obama’s administration, many new environmental regulations put into effect.
According to author, Sarah, O, Ladislaw’s report U.S domestic politics of climate
change, in 2010, Obama administration announced a program that allow 100 percent
auction of emission allowance designated to generate significant revenue, and the
money can be used in developing new environmental friendly technologies, protecting
normal people from higher energy prices.(Sarah 67) This regulation sound exciting
when people first see it. Soon the problem appears, there is compensations for general
public but the energy industry may not be able to benefit as much as it used to. Energy
auction refers to a situation that there is a fix amount of energy releasing every year
and it requires a price per unit if companies release more energy than they should. It
usually held by government agencies and the energy amount is limited as well. It
mean that some companies may suffer economic difficulties indirectly. Later in the
report, Sarah points out that “ the response of fossil energy based companies(oil,
natural gas and coal) deny the science of climate change and argue that low-carbon
alternative is costly.”(Sarah 69) This statement again confirm that environmental
regulations are not being accepted by the energy industries. It is also extremely
difficult for policy makers to come up with a perfect regulation for all. Politicians
need to make policies that companies and customers can benefit mutually. For
example, the U.S climate action partnership established in 2007 can provide mutual
benefit to energy companies and energy consumers. It is a non-government
organization and many companies before denied the fact of climate change start to
participate as well. The progress is happening slowly.
The graph below demonstrates the association between U.S climate change
partnership committee and energy companies. It is not hard to see from this graph that
the committee has enough influences and connections with big companies such as
general motor, shell company and many more. Politicians on federal level are putting
their efforts to counter climate change by negotiating with business leaders from
different fields. But the problem of climate change remains. And the reasons of
existence of the problem are because the federal and states governments have
different constitution, and they are not related to one another. Majority of American
also believe that the local government has more to say in terms of environmental
issues. The local politicians often can probe into the field instead the federal
government can only collecting data from the local authorities most of the time and
decide how to deal with difficulties.
In contrast, the European Union has standard policies for climate change and it
applies to all members in the Union, though some countries may adapt more than
others. According to European environmental commission, “ the European
Commission adopted a 9-point Action Plan to increase compliance with and improve
governance on EU environmental rules on activities . The actions will be
implemented over 2018-2019 with the help of EU countries and European networks
of environmental agencies, inspectors, auditors, police, prosecutors and judges in
order to provide citizens in Europe with possibly the best air, environment qualities in
the world” Every member in the European Union need to follow the guideline by
the European commission, there are two aspects in the graphs that stand out and help
European countries fighting for climate change. By encouraging professional training,
the environmental supervisors can have a better understanding of current climate and
environment issue. They are able to work with local officials more effectively and by
knowing climate issues in depth, it also let the inspectors come up with their own
opinions toward climate change. But in the United State, it seems like there is no such
institution that offers government official lessons for climate issue. The European
Commission also points out that they would launch more satellite for monitoring
current environment and climate. NASA had launched about 18 environment
monitoring satellite throughout the history and today there is 4 of them still
functioning. In contrast, the European Union launched 6 of environment satellite back
in 2014 and they now have 30 environment satellite! It might not be a fair comparison
giving the fact that the United States started its space project much earlier than the
European countries, and the American satellite was sent to space earlier than the
European satellite. There is a chance that NASA may not pay full attention to the
environment satellite part. However, if people put their efforts and do the basic
research, it is not hard to notice that there are over 2000 functioning satellite in the
space and over 900 of them belong to the United States. The European Union only has
22 functioning satellite. The statistics is speaking for itself. The federal government
need to put more budget on regulating and monitoring the climate. With decent
environment and natural resources, the economic market will keep growing in a long
run. It is just not wise to satisfy the current greed and ignore the future benefits by
endlessly exploiting the environment.
By implementing more and more environmental policies, the European Union has
made great success regulating their environment, the reason behind the success is not
complex. According to European Environment Commission, “Implementation of
Community environmental legislation is to be ensured in the first place by Member
States who need to monitor and report on it to the Commission and In addition to any
implementation and enforcement action taken at national level, the European
Commission fulfills the role of “Guardian of the Treaty”. “(Implementation of
Community environmental legislation) It means that if the country is a member of
European Union, then its government needs to take the responsibility of regulating its
environment, and assuming if most of the EU nations cooperate and follow the
guidelines. There should be noticing result, another article published by the European
Commission states that from 2012 there is an environmental research taking place in
order to measure whether the environmental polices brought changes toward the
environment. The result is exciting, “it suggest that environmental policies in Europe
are helping towards improving resource use efficiency. reducing greenhouse gas
emissions is an important element of resource efficiency. In Europe, domestic
greenhouse gas emissions fell by over 15 % between 1990 and 2010.”( Science for
Environmental policy) From this statistics, it is not difficult to recognize by having a
standard environmental policies and constantly reinforcing those policies, the goal of
preserving environment could be achieved. Though the success in Europe is mixed
and there is some countries refusing to cooperate fully, many European countries
accomplished the goals of having cleaner air, renewable energy and limiting
greenhouse gas emissions.
When it comes to environmental policies in America, the national environmental
policy act that published back in 1970 can be considered as first large-scale
environmental response law in the was signed by former president,
Richard,M, Nixion, the act was mentioned several paragraph earlier and individuals
were expecting decent outcomes from this policy. However, the reality tells people an
opposite story, a researcher from Utah State University, Jordan Lofthouse, explicitly
points out the ineffectiveness of NEPA and other environmental policies on the
national level, and in the report he states that “ The policymakers who drafted NEPA
intentionally made the wording vague to avoid limiting the act’s scope.NEPA’s
ambiguity has left agencies and the general public unsure of the act’s extent and there
is no words that defining federal government and institution’s role” ( Lofthouse 4) By
reading those information, people can notice that the NEPA did not require federal
government to reinforce the law and the vague wordings gives many businesses a
“method” to get away with certain actions. This theory could somewhat apply to
many environmental policies in degree. Thus it is extremely essential for the national
government to realize its role in fighting climate change.
In conclusion, it is not fully the federal government’s fault to not put enough efforts
to fight climate change. There are many more complicated factors that comes to play a
role. For example, American government adapts mixed federalism and every
government institution is separated from another. In this case, no institution possess
absolute power to command others, it also makes it harder to execute those policies
because no one is supervising. People may not know if the action they plan to take is
appropriate.In a word, the United States needs to make more efforts in environmental
governance. Economic market is important but not everything, people need a decent
environment to live life.
Work cited

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