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Essay 3 topic is Chocolate and Health.This essay will be a timed essay.You will have 2.5 hours to complete the task.Once you begin you must finish.You will be given the essay prompt at the time of the essay.Therefore, you will be required to create an outline before you write the essay on the topic of chocolate and health.Pre-writing worksheet ONLINE.docxThe outline may be in any design or format. Find something that works for you.We will look at how ethos, pathos, and logos work as a writing strategy.I have loaded a sheet with explanation and examples regarding ethos, pathos, and logos. Please reference this sheet before you begin to create your outline.Aristotle Appeals logos pathos ethos.docxEthos=ethicsPathos=emotionLogos=logicTwo points of view to consider:1. How does the chocolate industry promote the health benefits of chocolate using ethos, pathos, and logos?2. How does the opposition use ethos, pathos and logos to show that chocolate is not healthy?I will review your outline before the day of the timed writing.Essay 3Procedure:THIS ESSAY WILL BE A TIMED ESSAY (2.5 HOURS)WE WILL ATTEMPT TO COMPLETE THIS TASK USING CANVASYOU WILL HAVE ACCESS TO ALL THE READINGS BEFORE THE ESSAY ASSIGNMENTYOU WILL BE REQUIRED TO COMPLETE A PRE-WRITING OUTLINE IN ANY FORMATYOU WILL SUBMIT YOUR PRE-WRITING OUTLINE TO ME BEFORE THE ESSAY FOR MY REVIEWTHE OUTLINE IS DUE FRIDAY, MAY 8, 2020YOU MAY USE YOUR OUTLINE AND NOTES FOR YOUR ESSAYTHE ESSAY IS DUE BY MONDAY, MAY 11, 2020You may use any of the texts we have read in class and for homework to support your thesis for essay 3. Read for key ideas that relate to your thesis. Use evidence from the text to show how the author supports their thesis. You may also research outside sources for your essay to explain your thesis.3.5-4 pages required, double spaced and MLA formatted (to the best of your ability)12 point fontQuotes from at least two sources are expected to be integrated throughout your essayWrite this essay in 3rd person (Them, they, their). Don’t use I or We in this essay.Readings available on CanvasEssay Prompt: TBA, however as you put your pre-writing outline together focus on whether you consider chocolate to be a healthy food or a non-healthy food… (Your answer is your thesis!)Minimum Requirements:The essay contains a clear introduction, body paragraphs, and a conclusion.The essay supports your thesis with appropriate quotes and paraphrases the author’s ideas.Proofread, making sure that grammar errors don’t interfere with readability and comprehension and attempt to use coordinating and subordinating conjunctions.Write a final draft answering the essay prompt (3.5-4 pages), include your drafts and a cover memo describing the revisions that you have made between drafts.An “A” paper will meet all the minimum requirements AND…The essay contains a thesis statement that gives the readers a clear idea of what you are critiquing.Included are three quotes from texts and writing that shows you carefully unpacked and critiqued those quotes.Develop ideas completely and wrap it up to conclude strongly.Students should pay close attention to style and mechanics in all of your work by implementing the organization and writing skills introduced in this class.Careful proofreading together with correct grammar and punctuation usage is crucial in this class. Although the spellchecker is a valuable tool, one that students absolutely should use, students cannot simply run a spell-check without also proofreading a paper. As we know, spellcheckers do not flag everything, and may incorrectly flag some items. Only careful proofreading can find all the errors. In conjunction with the spellchecker, also enable the Microsoft Word grammar checker to run concurrently with the spellchecker. Lack of proofreading — formatting, punctuation, spelling and grammar mistakes — will result in an NP grade.Questions always arise regarding what constitutes a “page,” so to ensure we all use the same guidelines for essay length, a “page” for essays is a full 8 ½ x 11 inch page.Follow the standard MLA formatting guidelines.-Essay is double-spaced.-Use 12 pt. Times New Roman text running from the top margin to the bottom margin-All margins are one inch wide, no greater. The exception is the first page with the author block and essay title, in which the text runs from one line space below the title to the one-inch margin at the bottom.-Single space after period (or punctuation) at end of sentence.The reading resources:

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Is chocolate healthy? Alas, the answer
isn’t sweet. Here’s why.
By Steven Petrow
Oct. 26, 2019
I’m pretty sure I won’t have any friends left once they’ve read this — especially with
Halloween just days away. That’s because no matter how you break that candy bar, and
no matter how many headlines you’ve seen about the health benefits of chocolate, the
scientific evidence remains pretty slim.
Sure, you probably know that “white chocolate” (which doesn’t contain any chocolate at
all) and milk chocolate (which is loaded with sugar and fat) are not healthy choices. But
while dark chocolate is a better choice, it’s not a healthy one. I’m sorry, trick-or-treaters.
In the spirit of full disclosure, I’m a chocoholic myself, so I’m not happy about this
either. While I’ve never deluded myself into thinking of chocolate as a health food, say
like antioxidant-rich kale, I believed — thanks to many published studies — that even
one square of dark chocolate definitely had some health benefits.
When I did an Internet search, I found plenty of articles saying just that, including
Healthline’s “7 Proven Benefits of Chocolate” and the Cleveland Clinic’s “Heart Healthy
Benefits of Chocolate.” Articles like these (and many more) report that chocolate may
lower the risk of certain cancers, lower blood pressure and reduce the risks of diabetes,
stroke and heart disease.
I even read that dark chocolate lowers the risk of depression and that it’s counted —
along with nuts, avocados and blueberries — as a “superfood.”
Mucking up things, though, were other studies that suggest chocolate may increase our
risk for other cancers, and we’d be fools not to know that eating too much can lead to
obesity (and the troublesome health conditions that follow in its wake).
As a journalist, I know better than to believe everything I read, especially if it’s melting
in my mouth. So I did a little investigating to get to the bottom of the question: Is
chocolate healthy?
The top Google result for that question was a report (“Can chocolate be good for my
health?”) on the Mayo Clinic website. To help me fact-check it, I called Marion Nestle,
the much-respected professor of food and nutrition studies at New York University, who
has extensively studied the chocolate industry (most recently in her book “Unsavory
Truth: How Food Companies Skew the Science of What We Eat).”
I read Nestle (who is no relation to the candy maker) the article’s lead paragraph, which
states, in part, “chocolate’s reputation is on the rise, as a growing number of studies
suggest that it can be a heart-healthy choice.”
She stopped me right there to note that it’s not chocolate but the flavanols in chocolate
that might have potential benefits. Flavanols are abundant in cocoa beans, which yield
cocoa powder, which is then used to make chocolate, she said.
To be fair, despite its enticing headline, the Mayo article in fact does focus on the
benefits of flavanols, not chocolate, notably their “antioxidant effects that reduce cell
damage implicated in heart disease . . . [and] also help lower blood pressure and
improve vascular function.” But will readers understand that the amount of flavanols in
a chocolate bar is not nearly enough to affect their health? No, Nestle said with obvious
exasperation: “You’d have to eat an awful lot of chocolate to make a difference.”
Nestle told me that if I eat more chocolate to up my flavanol intake, I’m consuming a lot
more calories and fat, as well — which will be bad for my health. That’s because
flavanol-rich cocoa has a bitter taste, so candy manufacturers add lots of fats and sugars
to create commercial — delicious-tasting — chocolate.
One recent study reported that “higher levels of chocolate consumption might be
associated with a one-third reduction in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.”
That sounds like great news, but the study authors point out that those benefits would
require “excessive consumption,” with the probable side effect of “weight gain, a risk
factor for hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidaemia,” which increases the chance of
clogged arteries and heart attacks, stroke, or other circulatory concerns, especially in
smokers. Not so great.
Alice Lichtenstein, a professor of nutrition science and policy at Tufts University, also
said “the data don’t support using [chocolate] as a health food.” Why do so many think it
is? “It sounds great so I think people like repeating it,” she said.
Lichtenstein is critical of many of the studies, which she reminded me tend to come out
right before Valentine’s Day — our National Day of Chocolate. They “lack plausibility”
and are mostly “observational,” she said, which means they can show that two variables
are related to each other but can’t prove cause and effect.
As an example, Lichtenstein pointed to a study published in the New England Journal of
Medicine that showed “a very strong correlation between per capita chocolate intake
and the number of Nobel prizes awarded in any country. Does that mean the more
chocolate you eat, the more likely you are to win a Nobel Prize?”
I certainly hoped so, but Lichtenstein quashed my dream: “Obviously not.” Correlation
is not causation, she said, a fallacy many people fail to understand. Eating more
chocolate will not make you smarter or boost your chances of winning a Nobel Prize.
Further dashing my hopes, Lichtenstein said that there is some research “suggesting
biological effects, but those studies were done at high concentrations” of flavanols. To
make her point, she told me about a study in the journal Nature Neuroscience that
concluded people who consumed a high dose of cocoa flavanols performed much better
on a memory test than those on a low-flavanol mixture. Wow, I thought. But then she
added that a person would have to eat about “seven average-sized bars” daily to
consume enough flavanol for this possible benefit.
That study, it turned out, had other issues, notably that it had partial funding from
Mars, the chocolate company.
Marion Nestle said this isn’t an isolated incident. Chocolate makers have long funded
studies seeking to determine the health benefits of chocolate. A 2018 Vox report on
more than 100 Mars-funded studies found overwhelmingly glowing conclusions about
cocoa and chocolate — promoting everything from chocolate’s heart health benefits to
cocoa’s ability to fight disease.
“I’m not impressed by the research that shows this [when] it is industry funded,” Nestle
said. “It’s very hard to take seriously.” So take these studies with a grain of salt — but
maybe not another square of chocolate.
To wrap up my “investigation,” I spoke to Katherine Zeratsky, a registered dietitian and
licensed nutritionist at the Mayo Clinic and the author of “Can chocolate be good for my
Is it, I asked? “I think it possibly can be,” she said. “It’s like so many other foods, it
probably depends on how it’s consumed, how much is consumed. . . . ” From there, she
moved quickly to the important difference between cocoa beans and chocolate, pointing
out as Nestle had earlier that it’s the flavanol-rich cocoa beans that “are potentially
health promoting” — not chocolate. (A Mayo Clinic representative told me that their
“content is not influenced in any way by benefactors and donations to Mayo Clinic.”)
There’s that problem again: With every delectable mouthful, the cocoa beans in
chocolate offer tiny additional doses of flavanols — which are good for you — but far
more additional fat, sugar and calories — which are bad. It’s not a healthy trade-off.
So what’s a chocoholic to do? First, stop thinking of chocolate as “healthy.” Nestle said
she eats dark chocolate with nuts, but she’s clear it’s a treat.
“It’s a candy, and candy has a place in American diets,” she said. “That place is
Zeratsky urged people to look for chocolate that is 65 percent or higher made from
cocoa, “where we may see some health benefits.” That means only dark chocolate since
milk chocolate doesn’t have that much cocoa, which is how we measure “dark.”
She also recommended that we keep our chocolate intake to the American Heart
Association’s limit for discretionary calories — about 100 calories a day, or one square of
dark chocolate. That yields about 140 milligrams of flavanols, below the level where
you’ll likely get any health benefits. Enjoy it, like I do, but know it’s a treat.
Okay, you can unfriend me now.
A closer look at this confectionery
Here’s your basic chocolate analysis.
All chocolate bars, and syrup, are made from the cocoa bean, also called cacao, which is
the dried and fermented seed of Theobroma cacao, which consists of cocoa solids and
butter. Chocolate is made from cocoa beans, which if you’ve ever bitten into one, you
know it’s bitter. Very bitter.
When it comes to labeling chocolate, it’s done with a percentage such as “45 percent
cocoa,” or “70 percent cocoa.”
In a 70 percent bar, which is a dark chocolate, more than two-thirds of the contents is
derived from the beans, the nibs to be precise, with the remainder consisting of sugar,
cocoa butter or vegetable oil. That makes dark chocolates taste less sweet to our palates
than the milk chocolates, but also makes them less unhealthy (which is not the same as
By contrast, milk chocolate has a smaller percentage of cocoa beans than dark — and a
higher percentage of cocoa butter and sugar — along with milk powder or condensed
milk. White chocolate usually contains no cocoa powder — but lots of butter/oils, sugar
and milk — which is why many people rightfully claim that white “chocolate” is an
It’s those cocoa beans in chocolate that provide tiny doses of flavanols, which have some
health benefits. So how much chocolate do we need to consume to get that benefit?
There is no official U.S. recommended daily amount of flavanols, but one of the largest
trials looking at their benefits used 750 mg a day with study participants. For the rest of
us to get that same amount, we’d need to consume 4¾ ounces of dark chocolate, or 750
calories a day, and 2½ pounds of milk chocolate, or 5,850 calories daily. That’s a

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