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Now, imagine that you are a university psychology professor. One of your students, John Doe, was recently diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), combined presentation. He has e-mailed you and requested your advice and assistance with better understanding his circumstances, diagnosis, and prognosis. You will reply to John by writing an e-mail in which you will offer him advice in the following areas.Indicate structures of the brain that are involved and biopsychology factors that could impact his emotions, learning, memory, and motivation related to your class.Describe ways in which his brain can perceive information from the outside world that could in turn impact his performance in your class.Identify suggestions that you have for John to increase his chances for success in your class as well his other courses.Your e-mail must be a minimum of 500 words in the body of the e-mail. You must use at least two sources to support your advice. All sources used must be properly cited. Include the references at the bottom of the e-mail for your student’s reference. Please include a title page. The title page, citations, and references must be formatted in APA style.I have attached three images of ADHD terms and information. Which I have included the references on here as well for those. Within the information, one of those references must be used in the email/reference page. American Psychiatric Association. (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC: Author.Barkley, R.A., Murphy, K.R., & Fischer, M. (2008). ADHD in adults: What the science says. New York: Guildford PressArns, M., van der Heijden, K. B., Arnold, L. E., & Kenemans, J. L. (2013). Geographic variation in the prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: The sunny perspective. Biological Psychiatry (74(8): 585–590). doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2013.02.010Bush, G., Spencer, T. J., Holmes, J., Shin, L. M., Valera, E. M., Seidman, L. J., Biederman, J. (2008). Functional magnetic resonance imaging of methylphenidate and placebo in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during the Multi-Source Interference Task. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(1), 102–114.




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The Biological Perspective of Psychology
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit II
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
7. Identify biopsychology contributors to perception, motivation, and consciousness.
7.1 Indicate the structures of the brain that are involved in emotion, learning, memory, and
7.2 Describe how the brain perceives information from the outside world.
Learning Outcomes
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Chapter 2
Video: Biological Psychology Basics: How the Brain Works, Part 1
Video: Biological Psychology Basics: How the Brain Works, Part 2
Unit II Homework
Unit Lesson
Chapter 2
Video: Biological Psychology The Big Picture: My Brain Made Me Do It
Unit II Homework
Reading Assignment
Chapter 2: The Biological Perspective
A link to Chapter 2 of the eTextbook is provided in the Required Reading area of Unit II in Blackboard.
View the following three videos in MyPsychLab. You can access the videos by clicking the links provided in
the Required Reading area of Unit II in Blackboard. (You must be logged into Blackboard in order to access
any MyPsychLab features.)

Biological Psychology Basics: How the Brain Works, Part 1
Biological Psychology Basics: How the Brain Works, Part 2
Biological Psychology The Big Picture: My Brain Made Me Do It
Unit Lesson
As the most complex organ in your body, the brain regulates not only life functions but also cognitive and
emotional functions, including behavior. Have you ever considered what role your brain plays in your behavior
and reactions?
If you have not already viewed the video The Big Picture: My Brain Made Me Do It in MyPsychLab, do so now
by visiting the link provided in the Required Reading area of Unit II in Blackboard. This will help begin this
unit’s discussion about the biological perspective of behavior and the brain.
So what do you think? Think of a time you felt a rush and perhaps felt as though you could conquer the world.
Did you know that was a result of a surge of dopamine? On the other hand, what happens when there is a
deficit in certain hormones in our bodies? Can that impact our behaviors?
Here in Unit II, you will learn about the nervous system and how this complex structure works to influence our
behaviors and thoughts. Most psychology students are aware that the human body is comprised of cells.
PSY 1010, General Psychology
However, each kind of cell has a major function (Ciccarelli & White, 2017). AsUNIT
you explore
unit, pay close
attention to the various parts of the neuron, the cell that sends messages throughout
Title our bodies, and its
functions. It is really quite complex. For instance, did you know that the axon, the portion that carries
information to other cells, can actually be several feet in length?
Although neurons comprise a
huge portion of our brains,
other cells impact our
PARKINSONthinking, memory, and
perception as well. Glial cells
are the other predominant
cells that influence who we
-slow reaction
are. These cells actually
provide assistance to the
neurons. According to
Ciccarelli and White (2017),
new research is being
conducted to ascertain their
role in various
diseases, degenerative
disorders, as well as
psychiatric disorders. Further
(Adapted from Lacroix, n.d.-b)
exploration of this section will
reveal more information
about neural impulses and
how various stimuli can impact the stimulation of such.
-susceptibility to
“cue triggers”
Neurons use neurotransmitters to communicate with one another throughout our bodies. Unit II further
explains the intricate workings of the brain and how we perceive the world around us based on this
fascinating organ. For example, neurotransmitters tell cells when to fire on and off. (If this was not the case,
when you burned your finger after touching a hot pan, you would be in constant pain until you were
completely healed.) As you explore this unit, you will learn that the first neurotransmitter identified was
acetylcholine (ACh). ACh prompts the contraction of skeletal muscles, but it decreases heart muscle
contractions. Ciccarelli and White (2017) further explain that ACh is vital in attention, memory, and arousal. In
fact, research has revealed that individuals with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) have low levels of ACh.
PSY 1010, General Psychology
Another neurotransmitter
that most people easily
recognize by name is
dopamine (DA). This
neurotransmitter has
numerous effects on differing
people depending on its
activity location. For
instance, were you aware
that individuals with
Parkinson’s disease have
been discovered to have too
little DA in a particular area
in their brains?
Consequently, on the other
end of the spectrum, the
release of too much DA can
manifest in symptoms
related to schizophrenia.
You will also read in this unit
about serotonin (5-HT). This
neurotransmitter begins in
the lower part of one’s brain
and can have a dual effect.
Low levels of serotonin have
been associated with
depression. It has been
discovered that serotonin
can impact one’s sleeping
abilities, mood, anxiety
levels, compulsive
tendencies, and it can even
affect one’s appetite.
Fight or Flight
Produced in stressful situations.
Increases heart rate and blood
flow, leading to physical boost
and heightened awareness.
Calms firing nerves in the central
nervous system. High levels
improve focus, low levels cause
anxiety. Also contributes to motor
control and vision.
Affects attention and responding
actions in the brain. Contracts
blood vessels, increasing blood
Involved in thought, learning, and
memory. Activates muscle action
in the body. Also associated with
attention and awakening.
Feelings of pleasure, also
addiction, movement, and
motivation. People repeat
behaviors that lead to dopamine
Most common neurotransmitter.
Involved in learning and memory.
Regulates development and
creation of nerve contacts.
In short, it is quite helpful to
understand information
Contributes to well-being and
about the synapses and
Released during exercise,
happiness. Helps sleep cycle and
neurotransmitters as some
excitement, and sex. Produces
digestive system regulation.
prescribed medications
well-being and euphoria, reducing
could be dangerous if their
Affected by exercise and light
chemical molecules are
similar in shape and size to
(Adapted from Lacroix, n.d.-a)
neurotransmitters. The
chapter reading will help you
to better understand the excitatory or inhibitory effects of certain medications.
Now that you have learned about the cells that comprise the nervous system, it is time to gain a better
understanding of how the parts work cohesively to control how people and animals think, feel, and behave.
PSY 1010, General Psychology
Diagram of the nervous system.
(Fuzzform, 2012)
Central Nervous System
Did you know that the brain and spinal cord make up the central nervous system (CNS)? We discussed
neurons and glial cells in the previous section. The brain and spinal cord are comprised of glial cells and
neurons that impact our thoughts, behaviors, and emotions. According to Ciccarelli and White (2017), the
brain is the center of the CNS, and they further explain how the brain takes the information that is received
from our senses and makes decisions while transmitting directives to the muscles and our entire bodies. Our
brains process thoughts, memories, language, and various learning mechanisms. Another critical element of
the central nervous system is the spinal cord. The spinal cord is comprised of an extensively long package of
neurons that has two functions. Its first function is to transport information from throughout one’s body to the
brain and then back from the brain to the various parts of the body. Its second function is to control our
Have you ever heard that damaging one’s spinal cord is irreparable? Although it was once hypothesized that
neurons located in the brain and spinal cord could not repair themselves, recent research purports otherwise.
Ciccarelli and White (2017) share data in relation to neuroplasticity (the brain’s ability to change) and
neurogenesis (when the brain forms new neurons). Furthermore, most psychology students find the
information on stem cells to be quite promising when considering diseases such as Alzheimer and
PSY 1010, General Psychology
Peripheral Nervous System
The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is comprised of nerves and neurons that are not included in the spinal
cord and brain. In fact, the PNS enables the brain and spinal cord to communicate with our senses while also
helping the brain and spinal cord to control our muscles and glands. Furthermore, the PNS is divided into the
somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The somatic nervous system helps to
control our voluntary muscles, while the autonomic nervous system oversees our involuntary muscles, glands,
and organs.
Within the ANS there are additional systems: the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions. The
sympathetic division is involved when we experience stressful events and our bodies are aroused. It has been
referred to as the fight-or-flight component of our bodies. When we have stress in our lives, we sometimes
experience anger, and we want to retaliate and fight. On the other hand, stress can make us fearful at times,
and we end up wanting to flee, hence the flight aspect. The sympathetic division essentially helps us to cope
with and react to stress in our lives. You will explore more about this process in this unit’s Discussion Board
by taking a survey in MyPsychLab called Do You Fly or Fight? and by answering questions about your own
response to stressful events.
Conversely, the parasympathetic division helps to restore the body to a sense of wholeness after stress or
arousal has been experienced. In effect, it assists us by slowing down our heart rate, breathing intensity, and
reactivates our digestion. In short, the parasympathetic division restores the energy that we exhausted during
the stressful event. (Have you noticed that you are often hungry after your stress has passed?)
Glands affect functioning in one’s body and impact one’s behavior. The chemicals secreted by the glands in
our bodies are called hormones. Hormones can directly impact one’s behavior and emotions. Some theorists
believe that surges in one’s hormones can trigger various emotional reactions.
Can you tell that you behave
differently when your hormone
levels have dipped or surged?
(Iqoncept, n.d.)
Yes, hormonal imbalances can cause numerous issues. Certain disorders are associated with abnormal
levels of the pituitary (dwarfism and giantism), thyroid (hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism), and adrenal
glands (Addison’s disease and Cushing’s syndrome).
Studying the Brain
Ciccarelli and White (2017) explain that various methods are utilized when seeking to study the brain. For
example, have you heard about lesioning studies? Quite possibly have you read about brain stimulation
before? Most psychology students are aware that certain neuroimaging techniques exist such as using a
computer to take X-rays of the brain in a computed tomography (CT) scan or even the newer approach that
utilizes radio waves and magnetic fields to produce the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Other methods
used are electroencephalograms (EEGs) and positron emission topography (PET) scans.
In Chapter 2 of the eTextbook, brain structures are examined and discussed. At the beginning of this lesson,
we saw that the brain regulates life, cognitive, and emotional functions. Localization of function purports that
the various parts of the brain perform different functions. The brain stem, cerebellum, thalamus,
hypothalamus, pituitary gland, amygdala, hippocampus, and cerebrum are discussed in great detail in
Chapter 2 of the eTextbook. Although all parts have differing functions, they often overlap to accomplish
PSY 1010, General Psychology
certain tasks. If you have not already viewed the video on page 73 of the eTextbook,
the time to
UNIT x please
do so.
As you conclude your studies from Unit II, examine your thoughts about handedness, eyedness, footedness,
and facedness. (Yes, you read those correctly!) Most people will readily admit if they are left-handed or righthanded. Consequently, did you know that research has discovered that most individuals have a preference
related to their feet, legs, eyes, and face? Have you noticed that you tend to use one eye more than the
other? (You could ask your optometrist.) Quite probably you know someone who plays soccer. It is critically
important for these athletes to perform well with either foot, yet they likely have a dominant side. Furthermore,
researchers have discovered that when people receive verbal information, the right side of their face is more
activated. On the other hand, when emotions are expressed, the left side of their face is more pronounced
(Borod, Caron, & Koff, 1981).
Borod J. C., Caron, H. S., & Koff, E. (1981). Asymmetry of facial expression related to handedness,
footedness, and eyedness: A quantitative study. Cortex, 17(3), 381–390.
Ciccarelli, S. K., & White, J. N. (2017). Psychology (5th ed.). New York, NY: Pearson.
Fuzzform. (2012). NSdiagram [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Iqoncept. (n.d.). What do you think survey poll question, ID 20602105 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Lacroix, A. (n.d.-a). Neurotransmitters, ID 70913960 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Lacroix, A. (n.d.-b). Neurotransmitters, ID 34372254 [Illustration]. Retrieved from
Suggested Reading
The following article in the CSU Online Library reviews the recent and converging research on the impact and
clinical relevance of cognitive distortions and other mindsets in understanding and treating adults with ADHD.
To access the article, click the link below.
Ramsay, J. R. (2017). The relevance of cognitive distortions in the psychosocial treatment of adult
ADHD. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 48(1), 62–69. Retrieved from33
For a review of this unit’s concepts, you are encouraged to view the PowerPoint presentation for the chapter
reading by clicking on either of the links provided below.
Click here for the Chapter 2 PowerPoint Presentation. Click here for a PDF of the presentation.
For a visual display and deeper explanation of neurons, view the video below in MyPsychLab. You can
access the video by clicking the link in the Suggested Reading area of Unit II of Blackboard.

The Structure of the Neuron
PSY 1010, General Psychology
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
In the Nongraded Learning Activities area of Unit II in Blackboard, you will find MyPsychLab links to access
the following resources. They can help you to assess your understanding of this unit’s concepts.

Study the Flashcards: Chapter 2
Test Yourself: Chapter 2: On page 91 of the eTextbook, there is a Test Yourself section. You can
take the quiz to assess your understanding of the Chapter 2 material.
PSY 1010, General Psychology

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