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Examine, add edit, revise paper with an eye for these specific items:Background information and significance of issue is clearly communicated to the audience.Different types of argumentative claims are used to convince readers that that an issue has importance; that there are various connected issues that need to be addressed; that there are practices/beliefs that should be adopted to remedy or improve a situation; that the effects of your solutions/policies would improve some aspect of human experience.Paragraphs are clearly focused around a specific idea from topic sentence to conclusion sentence.Quoting and paraphrasing is well-integrated and contextualized and properly cited.Induction is used when explaining how evidence adds up to a big-picture claim or theory.Deduction is used to establish premises from facts and widely accepted ideas.Metacommentary is used to create cohesion and understanding on the sentence level.The project is 8 pages long and has an Annotated Bibliography as a references page. The references include at least 6 academic sources, and unlimited additional sources. (Annotated Bib done) Sources already doneLyricists vs Non lyricists.


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Non-Lyricists and Lyricists in the rap industry
Hip hop is a culture that was created by African Americans, Latinos, and Caribbean Americans.
Hip hop is very big in the United States. In 2017, 20.9 percent of music that was listened to was
hip hop and in 2018 it skyrocketed to 24.7 percent. These numbers mean that almost a quarter
of the population in the US was listening to Hip hop music (Boyer). Hip hop started off in the
South Bronx of New York and mainly consisted of African American artists. As time went on the
genre Hip hop changed into an American culture. Why is non-lyrical music looked down upon in
the genre of hip hop? In Hip hop there are many different artists. Some being lyrical and some
being non-lyrical Each individual artist has different goals in their music such as using different
types of methods throughout their rap career. Non-lyricists being focused on the producing side
of things while lyricist being focused on using more of a figurative language approach. After
doing my research I would like to break down Lyricist, non-lyricists, and how both artists music
The concept of Non-lyricist
Non-lyricist job is different than a rapper who is a lyricist. Although it might at first seem
like a more simplistic approach, there are many opportunities for it to be more complex than
lyrical rap depending on other things like the sonic composition, beats, production etc. In
addition to the emotion conveyed through nonlyrical vocals provided. They focus more on
mixing, mastering, and producing rather than what they are actually saying in their music. For
example, they will use more repetition in their music rather than rhyme and other types of
figurative language like lyricist. As stated in the article Locke talks about a trending non-lyricist
known as Young Thug. In the article it states “Young Thug expresses his feelings more purely
through sounds (Locke). Rather than explain a social commentary through lyrics, he can leave
the layers of analysis to his fans on Instagram and Rap Genius and use his songs to authentically
represent a self”(Locke). Locke shows how a non-lyricist works in the rap industry. He says how
Young thug specifically expresses his feelings through sounds which comes to show you what
non-lyricist tend to focus on when writing their music.
Goals of Non-lyricist
Some goals that non-lyricists have is to express their feelings through beats rather than
social commentary. For example, a top trending rapper in the rap industry known as Young
Thug uses his music to authentically represent his identity (Locke). Non-lyricists’ goals in today’s
rap isn’t to use much words but rather center there music around there beats. They want to
make a different appearance than the original rapper who uses rhyme. They want to be
different than everybody else. According to Locke he states that “a form of communication that
linguist Darrin Flynn sees as closer to “spontaneous speech” than rhyming, metaphor-laden
poetry (Locke).” In today’s world African American dialect is very hard to understand
sometimes. To some people it may sound like mumble. As a result, this is very good for nonlyricists. For example, like Young Thug he is under the category of mumble rap. In this article
Locke states “The closer that rappers deliver their lines the way they would actually speak
around peers, the more it gives you a window into black English vernacular (Locke). To wrap
everything up non-lyricists may be looked down upon, but it is actually a unique piece of art for
certain types of rapper that are labeled under mumble rap/non-lyricists.
Concept of Lyricist
Lyricists have a different approach than non-lyricists. Although it may seem like a more
complex approach, they are equally hard to do. The main focus of a lyricist is to use figurative
language in their music. A very popular form that lyricists use is metaphors and similes. All
lyricist focuses more on what is said in their music rather than the producing side. They will
make it sound good of course but the main goal is to tell a story and achieve that poetic effect
(Keith). An artist who has been in the game for a very long time known as Eminem is a huge
lyricist in the rap industry. If you dissect his music, you can see where his focus is at. According
to rap genius in his latest song Unaccommodating he says “I don’t got paper to be blunt, I’m
rolling Indo”(Genius). You can see in this one line there is so much going on. For example, he is
using paper once but is referencing to two different things. Paper being rolling paper for
cannabis and paper being money. Overall songwriters are focused on the act of writing.
Goal of Lyricists
Goals of lyricist is to tell a story to their audience about what they are dealing in life or
what they went through. They structure there music much differently than non-lyricists. Their
music revolves around punchlines, flow, and rhyming (Caldwell). For example, Eminem and
other lyricists talk about how they started from the bottom and made it to be famous. Another
artist in the industry known as Drake has a song called “Started from the Bottom” and in that
song you can notice the way he structures it (Keith). He has a chorus and then three different
lyrical parts to the songs. As you can see this is how all lyricist are similar. What makes a lyricist
is the way their structure their music through what they are saying throughout the song as I
was saying earlier.
Findings in Articles
Everyone likes different types of music. Music has changed from generation to
generation. Survey was taken on 1980’s men and then 2000’s kids and it showed how older
people were into more of the lyricists. As states by Keith in my article 5 he states how older
men would bring up rappers like 2pac and Eminem while the younger generation bring up
rappers like Young Thug and Lil Uzi Vert (Keith). The analysis that was made through the survey
is kids nowadays like the way music sounds rather than having a rapper who is focused on what
he is saying and the message he is trying to deliver to his audience.
In this article we looked at two types of people in the rap industry. We looked at different
articles that studied Non-lyricist and lyricists. We looked at the goals and concepts of both
artists and how they differ from one another. They both have different focuses when writing
their music. Next steps for researchers would be too dissect more lyrics for both artists and
actually explain how this makes the artist a non-lyricist or lyricist. This is okay but while reading
I have come across that a solution can be to unify non-lyricists and lyricists. One problem that
came to be evident is that these two different types of artists don’t get along together. A
solution to this would be collaborating together and feature each other on the songs they
release. In the future I feel like with more research non-lyricist will start to be looked at as
talented rather than untalented because they do get a lot of negativity for the way they
construct their music. If this problem gets solved, I feel like the rap industry would be much
better and there will be no problems with one another.
Summary 1:
Abe Ahmad
Young, Vershawn A. “Should Writers Use They Own English?.” Iowa Journal of Cultural
Studies 12 (2010): 110-117.
Key terms: Code-meshing, Standard English ideology, and
In this article Young proposes the ideas of code meshing and the use of Black English in
academic discourse. Code meshing is a mix of dialects that come from English. To support
Young’s argument, he begins to cite huge politicians in the U.S that already used code meshing
in the past on twitter. He also brings an important piece of evidence about graduate students. He
states, “In my own experience teaching grad students, they also tend to try too hard to sound
academic, often using unnecessary convoluted language, using a big word where a lil one would
do” (Young 67). In this quote Young explains the way students try to talk all formal and sound
smart but they don’t need to. Young then explains the positives of code meshing. He says that
it is as legitimate as standard English. He ends off by stating code meshing adds writing
proficiencies for everyone and last but not least reduce prejudice that is occurring in America.
Summary 2:
Young, Richard F. “English and Identity in Asia.” Asiatic, vol. 2, no. 2, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–13.
Key terms: Tactics of intersubjectivity, World Englishes, and multilingualism
Summary 2: Ibrahim Ahmad
In this article, Young argues that speakers and scholars make personalities by
participating in practices with one another. Young supports his argument through three types of
intersubjectivity; fitting into societal norms creating differences between people, the importance
of language and how it correlates with identity, and the role of different languages within
different group identities. Essentially, characters are liquid and developed. Finally Young asserts
that because of the tactics of intersubjectivity is that contact between the mother tongue is an
overbearing language like English neither jeopardizes the local lingos nor the characters of
people in a multilingual society.
Summary 3:
Higgins, Christina. Linguistics and Education , 8 Dec. 2011, pp. 49–61.
Keywords: language legitimacy, Pidgen, linguicism
In this article a documentary was produced by high school students to educate people
about Pidgin in school and society to help solve the problem of linguicism. . Through their
studies it revealed the importance of translingual practice in classrooms. Students use their own
communities to learn about the relationship between language and society Many students’
opinions towards Pidgin changed throughout the project. These students argue that these
languages earn more respect in school settings and everything beyond it. The movie consisted of
two main points for viewers. It was for students to perform their Pidgin directly to the camera
and then to include eye dialect to know the difference between Pidgin from English. The final
result of the study was by treating non-standard dialects as topic in their own right, without
reference or correlation with the prevailing language, we contend that these dialects gain more
attention in school settings and past.
Focus Summary 4:
Young, Richard F. “English and Identity in Asia.” Asiatic, vol. 2, no. 2, Dec. 2008, pp. 1–13.
Key terms: Tactics of intersubjectivity, World English, and multilingualism
In this article, Young argues that speakers and scholars make personalities by participating in
practices with one another. One claim Young makes is that he studies hybrid languages like
Chinglish, Manglish, and Konglish. Young focuses on fitting into societal norms and creating
differences between people. He states “each country should speak their own style, though, yes,
they must know Brit or American English for business or work. But when back in Malaysia, let’s
do it our way!” (Young 10). Everybody should speak in their own way and that’s how young
supports the tactic of distinction. He also says speaking proper English doesn’t mean you have to
speak like the foreigners because that would be “bloody fake” (Young 10). Essentially,
characters are liquid and developed. Young asserts the contact between the mother tongue and an
overbearing language like English neither jeopardizes the local lingos nor the characters of
people in a multilingual society.
Summary 5: Critique summary
Cross, Keith, and Takako Fujioka. “Auditory Rhyme Processing in Expert Freestyle Rap
Lyricists and Novices: An ERP Study.” Neuropsychologia, vol. 129, June 2019, pp. 223–
235. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2019.03.022.
In music there are lyricists who combine rhyming, rhythmic, and semantic structures of
language. In this article they studied lyricists and non-lyricists. They surveyed people who
listened to rhymes and lines that didn’t rhyme. Expert rappers and laypersons found that lyricists
encourage linguistics and musical features in the brain while non-lyricists didn’t. The goal of this
article is to show how the language in music trigger certain brain areas in humans. In their
studies they found that “ extensive practice of improvised lyricism may uniquely encourage
the neuroplasticity of integrated linguistic and musical feature processing in the brain” (Cross).
This is a big deal because they found out that phonologic awareness and rapid symbolic naming
didn’t have a big difference between lyricist and non-lyricists. Although non lyricists had a big
impact on the human’s phonologic memory. I disagree with the study because I feel like artists
who use more intelligent lyrics would have an effect on someone’s brain but I guess studies
prove different. It shows non lyricist impact the human brain more.
Summary 6:
Caldwell, David. “The Interpersonal Voice: Applying Appraisal to the Rap and Sung
Voice.” Social Semiotics, vol. 24, no. 1, Feb. 2014, pp. 40–55. EBSCOhost,
In this article the Systemic Functional Linguistics (SFL) and social semiotics show how the
linguistic system of appraisal is related to sound through rap music. The goal of this article is to
inform the reader and demonstrate the properties of rap and the performance voices. This paper
additionally intends to show people with a precise, principled technique by showing relations in
meaning to sound. The SFL takes two approaches which are appraisal and attitude. Appraisal is a
linguistic framework intended to recognize assessment in language and contains three principle
frameworks. The SFL brought up the topic of appraisal because no research has tried to apply
appraisal to rap and sung performances. This is due to appraisal being a new linguistic system.
The system of attitude is intended to identify feelings through wordings. The SFL identifies this
as labeling rappers in a positive or negative way. For example, the rapper either being sad or
happy. This determines the emotional state that the rapper is in. In these studies, they found that
you assign interpersonal meanings to sound features. I feel like some of their research was
important. The one that stood out most to me was the topic of appraisal because it is relatively
new and not many people began researching it. I feel like they are attacking the rap game in a
different way to be able to dissect different types of rappers. This matter because they can look
further into the type of linguistics they are using in their lyrics. This is when the approach of
attitude comes in because they can determine the emotional state of artists. They can look and
see why they used some of the words in their songs to know if they are happy or sad. The
emotional state comes in with many rappers some rap about romance and some rap out money.
Money determining there happy and break up determining there sad.

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