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Running Head:Group 5 Case Analysis
1. How well did each project user information requirements, and how well it incorporate
end-user involvement? Should anything in this regard have been done differently?
The very first case entails an investigation into the dialogue surrounding the applications of
technology in the management of public procurement of information systems. The authors of the
article note that the acquisition of information systems is quite challenging, especially for public
service organizations (Moe et al.). Yet, the applications of IS promises unrivalled advantages in
the enhancement of the public entities. The public service organizations face a dilemma given
that procuring the systems that best suit their needs would require a lengthy process of dialogues
and conversations with vendors while at the same time, they face restrictions from
thegovernment regulators with emendations that limit the extensive use of dialogue for the
interest of the maintenance of high levels of transparency and the provision of equal
opportunities to all the vendors. The case article thus closely monitors three examples of
procurement projects by public service organizations in Norway to examine the level of
applicability of the information systems.
For the public service organizations, the rapid changes brought about technologicaldevelopments
necessitate constant digital transformation initiatives to be able to offer unparalleled services to
the public. The case particularly observed that the pursuit of innovative knowledge management
had created a conflict when it comes to the adoption of customer-centered approaches. The
inclusion of the end-user requirements was especially problematic because of the government
restrictions hence impacting the overall efficacy of the information systems in delivering their
intended objectives.
Group 5 Case Analysis
Organizations have evolved a lot in the globalized competitive environment. In the second
case, the company Alpha is not any exception to such evolution. In order to compete with the
other organizations,it has skilfully implemented the cloud-based enterprise. Information
management is the key source of all the organization at present. The organization has considered
all the contextual factors like – Individual, Group, Organization, Environment, Technology and
Decision for continuous evolution of the enterprise software. The case reflects how the
information requirement has been addressed by Alpha. The list of requirements included
upgrades, portals, customer support, UX, mail integration, configuration, CRM systems,
trainings and jobs, cost of licensing, admin efforts, smart phones and switching efforts. Each
requirement was thoroughly assessed.
The use of the cloud-based system helped in fostering the involvement of end users where
they were getting affected because of RightNow’s forced rollout that was done in the sales
division (Schneider et al.). This increased the amount of discontent among the employees in the
sales division which affected the end-user involvement. End user experience is only possible
with a solid end user interface, flexibility and customization. However, the existing cloud system
lacked this end-user involvement. Here, self- service acquisition was the contextual factor in
reference. Customization at the service core was made by integrating the custom developed
solutions with RightNow in order to manage multiple services seamlessly at a single time.
Implementation of Blockchain and using analytical tools are few additional things that could
have been done by Alpha. These could help in storing and analysing a large volume of
information as well as accurate future predictions rather than predictions based on gut feeling.
In the third case of electronic health information systems, the authors evaluated the health
information system’s usability in the provision of preventive healthcare services. The assessment
Group 5 Case Analysis
grounded on the need for the coordination and management of the healthcare activities between
the customers and the multiple service providers. In the case example, the authors analyzed the
patient-centered electronic health (PCEH) framework by collecting qualitative information from
specific individual stakeholders, including consumers who have previously used the systems.
Some fifteen interviewees and respondents provided their opinions on the usability of the
systems. Most of the users of the new e-health program in Connecticut dubbed the Health
Enhancement Program, agreed that there were several challenges in the adoption and
implementation of the systems.
According to the definition that has been provided by the National Alliance of Health
Informatics Technology (NAHTI)(2008) – EHR entails electronically stored health-related data
and information of individuals, that at the same time have to conform to some specified national
interoperability standards and needs managing by qualified medical personnel. Therefore,
electronic health records training is the first step towards and intriguing and sustainable
healthcare operations to realize a better quality of care (Blaya et al.). Given that in the healthcare
setting is commonly characterized by information-intensive interrelations and transitions
between various departments and care settings, EHR evidenced-based practices ensure that the
patient information is easily available and accessible, as well as an overall efficient, coordinated,
patient-centered care.
The proposition especially held within the context of the lifestyle improvement of the users,
despite the systems assuming a patient-centered design at the back of the mind. Such findings
support the argument that the success of the information system projects in an organization is
only as good as the people who use the systems. Despite eliciting user information to inform the
customer-centered designs in the project requirements, the level of system integration such that it
Group 5 Case Analysis
ensures the realization of optimal benefits was still low. The implication is that the incorporation
of the user requirement in the design and assessment of e-health information systems, the
involvement of the end-users and maintenance of in-service training would be critical towards
enabling the adoption and effective integration of the systems such that they deliver on the
expectations by improving the ultimate health outcomes
2. How well did each project consider various managerial, organizational, and
technological aspects?
The projects described in the case studies reveal a high level of utilization of various
managerial, organizational, and technological aspects in different ways. Notably, theexamples in
the first case involved obtaining information systems to municipalities concerning the
procurement of a claim system, an electronic health record (EHRs), and a backend system. From
a managerial perspective, the procurement process of the different systems involved a
description of an explicit and precise identification of tasks and responsibilities. Besides, another
apparent administrative aspect in the procurement cases entailed the flow of authority as well as
the workforce level requirements. Khan and Sebastian (2018) explained that the managerial
perspective in information systems aid the establishment of the complete range of controls
defined by the purpose of a study and appropriate in the alleviation of possible risks. For
instance, in Example 1: purchase of claims systems, the project supervisor initiated a project
group that consisted of a superuser from claim departments and an IT technician responsible for
the ERP system operations (Moe, Newman, & Sein, 2017). The super user’s roles entailed the
provision of expertise in the functional areas, while a procurement manager was tasked to give
consultant advice from a procurement perspective. Similarly, in Example 2: Procurement of
EHRs, the project comprised of a project team tasked with different roles and responsibilities
Group 5 Case Analysis
focused on accomplishing the goals of replacing the old system with current and modern EHRs
systems at the municipality. Moreover, the project procurement adhered to the provided rules
and regulations, revealing adherence to the managerial aspect, whereby the acquisition process
ensured the adherence with stated EU regulations.
From an organizational perspective, the projects included a comprehensive statement of
purpose and a timeline allocated for the implementation of the process. For instance, in Example
1: the goal and objective of the new system were to aid in collecting claims from the individual
who had failed to pay for public housing, children care, and real estate tax (Moe, Newman, &
Sein,2017). Example 2, on the other hand, the project intended to enhance the realization of the
government regulation publicized in 2010 that mandated info exchanges between the EHRs of
different municipalities, local GPs, and public hospitals. Besides, the objectives of the third
project, Example 3, entailed implementation of a backup and archiving system that could cope
with the growing amount of the information at the IT department in the municipality depicting
the organizational aspect of the projects. Nonetheless, technologically, the projects entail the
procurement of IT systems that would aid in accomplishing the set goal and objectives, including
the aiding human activities. Besides, the project intended to assist the technical task such as
enhancing message exchange between municipalities, local GPs, and public hospitals, aiding in
claim processing, as well as heightening the process of backing and archiving the growing
amount of data at the municipality.
In the second case, the members of sourcing team, specific business requirements,
support and consulting services, division of information technology, configurations of the user
interfaces and complex business requirements were all investigated thoroughly. It was seen that
RightNow was totally integrated with all the business activities of the organization and it was
Group 5 Case Analysis
very difficult to bring altogether a new technology that would help them serve better. So, the
company proposed to a better integration of the technology in the IT landscape of the
organization. The integration of technology, organization and the management helped in better
end-user experience. The research has clearly highlighted how the RightNow services were
integrated with all the other business divisions and how the sales division rejected it. The
proposition made in the case study will make it possible for the sales division to get a better
result that is by integrating RightNow with self-customized interface.
As the third case is associated with the adoption of a patient-centered e-health system to
manage the healthcare system, it accomplishes managerial aspects by effectively managing
healthcare goals as well as operations of providers by using the e-health system and other
resources. The healthcare providers are competent and retain specific skills for the project.
Secondly, the project also accomplishes the organizational aspect by focusing on the common
purpose of improving patient healthcare. In this regard, the service providers are active by
coordinated efforts with patients and prevent them accordingly. Preventive care requires strong
collaboration with consumers and healthcare activities that lead to personal healthcare
management. By use of patient-centered e-health framework, both patient and healthcare
provider enable to take the best decision by collaborative efforts. The hierarchy of authority and
division of workforce is feasible to gain the common purpose of quality healthcare services. The
technological aspects are ensured remarkably because the patient-centered e-health (PCEH)
framework is the best IT health system to unleash healthcare improvements. It is a health IT
application that helps the patient to maintain personal health information. By having such a
health IT system, the service provider can meet patient needs remotely without any need for
paper-based methods. The unification of the health IT system motivates patients to adopt this
Group 5 Case Analysis
system which identifies patient empowerment, patient activity, and patient focus. The
coordinated patient healthcare system enhances the interaction of physicians to address disease
more effectively.
3. What lessons were learned regarding organizational change in systems development?
In the first case scenario, one of the lessons learned related to institutional change in
system development is the aspect of dialectic and dialectical thinking, where different involved
personnel hold contradicting opinions. In most cases, organizational change in system
development involves various stakeholder groups that reveal contradictory goals. Moe, Newman,
and Sein (2017) noted that dialectic implies the comprehension of the contrary opinions pulling
in the opposite direction. In organizational change, dialectical thinking is one of the significant
issues that hinder institutional change, especially that requires prompt addressing to foster the
attainment of the system development goals and purpose. Another lesson learned is that in
organizational change that involves system development, it is imperative to demonstrate how a
system a new system produces change and the benefits of adopting the new system to the benefit
of the involved stakeholders. The process includes the provision of an in-depth explanation of
the primary activities that would lead to the achievement of the organizational goals and
The second case entails that change management as one of the most difficult and inevitable
factors for any organization. While implementing change,several factors are required to be
considered. In this case the sales division was facing a problem with RightNow but the company
did not initiate a sudden change based on that. The company had to consider all the contextual
factors at all levels and at all the divisions.
Group 5 Case Analysis
The third case also mentions organizational change in system developments as
automation in healthcare performs the task more effectively. Furthermore, it rationalizes
healthcare procedures and streamlines standard operating procedures. The organizational change
motivates employees to work towards vision and leadership. The organizational change is taken
place to eliminate paper-intensive and repetitive tasks. The patient-centered e-health entails a
paradigm shift where providers involve rethinking business nature efficiently. The designing of a
new healthcare information system changes resource skills and job nature to excel opportunities
by addressing resource strengths. The use of the health IT system incorporates patient personal
information where providers can easily access to healthcare information and deliver better
healthcare decisions. Thus, automation, rationalization, paradigm shift, and business process
redesign are basic learning of the organizational change in system developments. The adoption
and use of e-health are beneficial for both providers and patients. The article explores
organizational development and healthcare provider enable to ensure continuous development
and increases vertical and horizontal communication from top to the down hierarchy of
management. In addition, organizational change keeps employee performance higher because
they are assessed according to aligned targets. Therefore, assessment and feedback are
adequately obtained by organizational change especially in system developments. However,
change creates resistance, but sufficient training and awareness reduce employee resistance and
accept change of system development in order to maximize stakeholder values. Thus, the change
should be adopted to meet environment trends accordingly.
Group 5 Case Analysis
Blaya, Joaquin A., Hamish SF Fraser, and Brian Holt. “E-health technologies show promise in
developing countries.” Health Affairs 29.2 (2010): 244-251.
Grandhi, S. A., & Osatuyi, B. (2018 ). If You Build It, Will They Use It? Challenges in Adoption
and Use of Patient-centered E-health. JOURNAL OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY
Khan, A., & Sebastian, M. P. (2018). Understanding the Human, Managerial and Organizational
Aspects of Information Security Management: A Literature.
Kontos, Emily, et al. “Predictors of eHealth usage: insights on the digital divide from the Health
Information National Trends Survey 2012.” Journal of medical Internet research 16.7
(2014): e172.
Moe, C. E., Newman, M., & Sein, M. K. (2017). The public procurement of information
systems: dialectics in the requirements specification. European Journal of Information
Systems, 26(2), 143-163.
Neter, Efrat, and Esther Brainin. “eHealth literacy: extending the digital divide to the realm of
health information.” Journal of medical Internet research 14.1 (2012): e19.
Schneider, S., Wollersheim, J., H. K., & Sunyaev, A. (2018). How do requirements evolve over
time? A case study investigating the role of context and experiences n the evolution of
enterprise software requirements. Journal of Information Technology, 151-170.
Wilson, E. Vance, and Nancy K. Lankton. “Modeling patients’ acceptance of provider-delivered
e-health.” Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association 11.4 (2004): 241248.

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