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There is a selected object, summarizes 15 Annotated Bibliography source’s content in 400 words. (Annotated Bibliography source’s background information already completed)Please refer to the attachment “Guideline” I sent you, , which contains very detailed paragraph content analysis. Please write according to that mode.MOST IMPORTANT: PLEASE BE ON TIME!! THANK YOU.


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Annotated Bibliography Draft
Houling Zhou
Selected Object: The Crucifixion.
1. Art Institute of Chicago, Paintings in the Art Institute of Chicago: A Catalogue of the
Picture Collection (Chicago, 1961), p. 489, ill. p. 104.
This catalogue offers a wide collection of different works of art. One of the works
which the catalogue discusses is The Crucifixion. It is worth noting that this work of art
was by Francisco de Zurbaran and he created it in the year 1927. Form the catalogue I
leaned that the work of art was religious and its creator was among the popular religious
painters of the 17th century.
2. Brown, Jonathan. Painting in Spain: 1500-1700. Vol. 55. Yale University Press, 1998,
The book provides some works of art created by artists in Spain. Further, the
book emphasizes on the interaction that exists between art and other aspects of the
society such as political as well as socioeconomic conditions. The book does not solely
focus on Spanish artist but also other painters who were not from Spain. The reason for
selecting this book is that it discusses The Crucifixion which is the object focused in this
paper. Therefore, this makes the source relevant.
3. Kubler, George, and Martin Soria. Art and architecture in Spain and Portugal and
their American dominions, 1500 to 1800. Vol. 17. Harmondsworth, Eng., Penguin, 1959.
p. 244.
This source emphasizes on the works of art in both Portugal and Spain as well
as the history of art. It discusses the development of major arts in their respective
countries and how they penetrated in to Latin America. It is majorly focused on the
works of art of great artists such as Murillo. From the book, I have learned that Zurbaran
was among popular artists of his time. The reason of selecting this book is that
discusses the works of art by Francisco de Zurbarán. Also, the source was picked since
it offers focusses on the crucifixion
4. Maxwell, William Stirling. Annals of the Artists of Spain. Vol. 3. J. Ollivier, 1848’ p.
The source discusses the skills posed buy different artists in Spain and the
different works they created. It discusses how the artists were able to make use of color,
light and shape to come up with great works that are adored even up to date. Among
the works of art that the book discusses in The Crucifixion and this explains why the
book was selected for this paper. From the book I learned that The Crucifixion was
made using color and oil.
5. Nina Ayala Mallory, “Museum News: Zurbarán,” Art Journal 47 (1988), p. 233.
This journal article is specifically devoted to the works and paints of Zurbaran.
The article further discusses how Zurbaran was a unique artist who emphasized on
religious art. From the journal article I learned that, one of the major religious work of art
which Zurbaran made was The Crucifixion which he specifically painted using oil in the
year 1627. The main reason for selecting this source is that it does not only focus on
Zurbaran, but also his work of art which the paper will focus on.
6. Richard Mühlberger, The Bible in Art: The New Testament (New York, 1990), p. 126,
The source offers a clear information on the middles ages piece of art all the way
to the 20th century. The works of art featured in this book are specifically those that
focus on different events or scenes that occurred during the New Testament. From the
book I learned that the artwork was actually based on a scene in the New Testament. It
is worth noting that the book offers painting of different artists such as Elgreco and
Zurbaran along with the explanations on every piece of art. The reason for picking the
source is that it highlights The Crucifixion.
7. Steven F. Ostrow, “Zurbarán’s Cartellini: Presence and the Paragone,” Art Bulletin 99
(2017), pp. 77-83.
This article offers an analysis of the Cartellino of Zurbaran which was specifically
examined in early modern paintings of Spain. The article also discusses how Zurbaran
was able to utilize the cartellino meta-pictoricallly. The article focuses on different works
of art which the artist made during his active years and this includes The Crucifixion.
Such is the major reason for picking the work of art. This article has helped me realize
that The Crucifixion was made using oil paint.
8. Tomlinson, Janis A. From El Greco to Goya: Painting in Spain, 1561-1828. Abrams,
1997. pp. 69-70, fig. 42.
The book is primarily focused on 250 years of the Spanish paintings. The works
which the book covers include those that were made during the splendid 16th century.
The book uses approximately 116 illustration including The Crucifixion hat is labeled as
figure 42. From this book I leaned that The Crucifixion was one of the memorable works
created by Zurbaran.
9. Xavier Bray, “The Sacred Made Real: Spanish Painting and Sculpture 1600-1700” in
The Sacred Made Real: Spanish Painting and Sculpture 1600-1700, pp. 15,18, 32, 34,
The article analyzes how during the 17th century, there was a type of realism
used in art. This kind of realism was meant to ensure that the revitalization of the
protestants and the Catholic Church through making paintings of different aspects of
religion. This included paintings of saints, virgin and Christ. From the article, I have
learned that Zurbaran, by making The Crucifixion, he was just responding to a trend that
existed during the time.
10. Yves Bottineau, “On the Critical Fortunes of Francisco de Zurbarán: Reflections and
Inquiries” in Zurbarán, exhib. cat., Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, 1987, pp.
This is a chapter in the book titled “Zurbaran” by Yves Botineau. The chapter
argues that Zurbaran gained more popularity and recognition due to his works of art that
were focused on religion. He was trained to be a painter using the apprenticeship mode
of learning. One of the major paintings which he made was The Crucifixion. From this
book chapter, I have learned that The Crucifixion was made with the aim of depicting
Jesus Christ on the cross and the suffering which he went through.

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